3–10 years. Several modifications were made to the TGMD-3 from previous editions ( Webster & Ulrich, 2017 ). In brief, the TGMD-3 is divided into two subtests: locomotor and ball skills. The locomotor subtest is composed of six skills: run, gallop, hop, skip, horizontal jump, and slide. The ball
Hyokju Maeng, E. Kipling Webster, E. Andrew Pitchford and Dale A. Ulrich
Esther Hartman, Suzanne Houwen and Chris Visscher
This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine their active involvement in organized sports. The deaf children had significantly more borderline and definite motor problems than the normative sample: 62% (manual dexterity), 52% (ball skills), and 45% (balance skills). Participation in organized sports was reported by 43% of the children; these children showed better performance on ball skills and dynamic balance. This study demonstrates the importance of improving deaf children’s motor skill performance, which might contribute positively to their sports participation.
Frederik J.A. Deconinck, Dirk De Clercq, Rudy Van Coster, Ann Oostra, Griet Dewitte, Geert J.P. Savelsbergh, Dirk Cambier and Matthieu Lenoir
This study examined and compared the control of posture during bilateral stance in ten boys with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) of 6-8 years old and ten matched typically developing boys in four sensory conditions (with or without vision, on a firm or complaint surface). In all conditions mean postural sway velocity was larger for the boys with DCD, in spite of a normal score on the balance items of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. A Group X Condition interaction revealed a larger dependency on vision in the boys with DCD when standing on a firm surface. These results suggest that in this specific subgroup of boys with DCD with predominantly problems in fine motor and ball skills postural control problems may still be prevalent and may possibly be associated with difficulties to re-weight sensory information in response to environmental demands.
Suzanne Houwen, Esther Hartman, Laura Jonker and Chris Visscher
This study examines the psychometric properties of the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2) in children with visual impairments (VI). Seventy-five children aged between 6 and 12 years with VI completed the TGMD-2 and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). The internal consistency of the TGMD-2 was found to be high (alpha = 0.71−0.72) and the interrater, intrarater, and test-retest reliability acceptable (ICCs ranging from 0.82 to 0.95). The results of the factor analysis supported internal test structure and significant age and sex effects were observed. Finally, the scores on the object control subtest of the TGMD-2 and the ball skills subtest of the Movement ABC correlated moderately to high (r = 0.45 to r = 0.80). Based on the current results, it is concluded that the TGMD-2 is an appropriate tool to assess the gross motor skills of primary-school-age children with VI.
Eva D’Hondt, Benedicte Deforche, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij and Matthieu Lenoir
The purpose of this study was to investigate gross and fine motor skill in overweight and obese children compared with normal-weight peers. According to international cut-off points for Body Mass Index (BMI) from Cole et al. (2000), all 117 participants (5–10 year) were classified as being normal-weight, overweight, or obese. Level of motor skill was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Scores for balance (p < .01) and ball skills (p < .05) were significantly better in normal-weight and overweight children as compared with their obese counterparts. A similar trend was found for manual dexterity (p < .10). This study demonstrates that general motor skill level is lower in obese children than in normal-weight and overweight peers.
Janice Causgrove Dunn and E. Jane Watkinson
This study investigated whether the TOMI (Stott, Moyes, & Henderson, 1984), a motor skills test recommended for the identification of children who are physically awkward (Sugden, 1985; Wall, Reid, & Paton, 1990), contains biased items. Findings of a study by Causgrove and Watkinson (1993) indicated that an unexpectedly high proportion of girls from Grades 3 to 6 were identified as physically awkward, and the authors suggested that the TOMI may be biased in favor of boys. In the present study, this suggestion was investigated through comparison of performances of TOMI subtest items by boys and girls from Grades 1 to 6. Chi-square analyses on each of the eight test items revealed significant performance differences between boys and girls on the two ball skills tasks of catching and throwing (p < .0001) at Age Bands 3 and 4; a significantly greater proportion of boys than girls age 9 to 12 years passed the catching and throwing tasks. A significant performance difference was also found on the tracing task at Age Band 1, with more girls passing tracing than boys. Implications for future research requiring the identification of children who are physically awkward are discussed.
Carlo Di Brina, Roberto Averna, Paola Rampoldi, Serena Rossetti and Roberta Penge
used in research to screen children with motor coordination difficulties and definite specific motor problems. M-ABC measures different aspects of motor ability regarding three subscores: three items measure manual dexterity, two items measure ball skills, and three items measure static and dynamic
Thom T.J. Veeger, Annemarie M.H. de Witte, Monique A.M. Berger, Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Dirkjan (H.E.J.) Veeger and Marco J.M. Hoozemans
. For the latter, both ball skills and wheelchair handling skills—or “mobility performance”—are essential. Mobility performance in itself is dependent on both physical performance and capacity, and quality of wheelchair handling. Thus, mobility performance is not only dependent on physical athlete
Sophie Speariett and Ross Armstrong
. Robertson SJ , Burnett AF , Newton RU , Knight PW . Development of the Nine-Ball Skills Test to discriminate elite and high-level amateur golfers . J Sports Sci . 2012 ; 30 ( 5 ): 431 – 437 . PubMed ID: 22288833 doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.654398 10.1080/02640414.2012.654398 22288833 39. Hall
Ali Brian, Sally Taunton, Lauren J. Lieberman, Pamela Haibach-Beach, John Foley and Sara Santarossa
Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are the building blocks to more complex movement patterns ( Clark & Metcalfe, 2002 ). FMS are often subdivided into include object control (now referred to in the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 [TGMD-3] as ball skills) and locomotor skills ( Gallahue, Ozumn