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Hilda F. Mulligan, Leigh A. Hale, Lisa Whitehead and G. David Baxter

People with disability are insufficiently physically active for health. This study identified the volume, quality, and findings of research that exposes environmental and personal barriers of physical activity participation for people with neurological conditions. CINAHL, Sport Discus, EMBASE, Medline, and AMED were systematically searched between 1999 and week one 2010 for peer reviewed studies that fit the aim of the review. Identified barriers to physical activity participation were categorized into the World Health Organization’s ICF framework of domains. Of the 2,061 studies uncovered in the search, 29 met inclusion criteria and 28 met quality appraisal. Findings showed that barriers to physical activity participation arise from personal factors that, coupled with lack of motivational support from the environment, challenge perceptions of safety and confidence to exercise.

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Ben D. Kern, Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods and Tom Templin

toward change perceive socializing agents and teaching context as barriers to or facilitators of making pedagogical change. With consideration given to individual teacher dispositions toward change and grounded in teacher socialization theory, the following research questions guided this study: (a

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Ben D. Kern, K. Andrew R. Richards, Suzan F. Ayers and Chad M. Killian

accounts of, perceived successful strategies for increasing student enrollments and barriers to participating in recruitment are warranted as many PETE faculty members find themselves in a position where they feel compelled to increase program enrollments or face elimination ( Ward, 2015 ). With this in

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber

participate and who have risen to an elite level. Although the field of adapted sport is growing, there is a paucity of research on motivations, facilitators, and barriers for sport participation among individuals with physical disabilities competing at an elite level. Furthermore, less is known about how

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James D. Wyant, Emily M. Jones and Sean M. Bulger

In recent years increased attention has been placed on physical education teachers’ use of technology. To date little research has been disseminated regarding the strategies physical education teacher education (PETE) programs are employing to prepare preservice teacher’s to use technology. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence a technology course had on advancing change in preservice teachers. A mixed methods process involving qualitative and quantitative data collection was employed. Participants included 12 preservice teachers enrolled at a mid-Atlantic university. Data analysis revealed four dominant themes emerged from participant data: (1) Increased Technological and Technological Pedagogical Knowledge; (2) Persistent First- and Second-Order Barriers to Technology Use; (3) Necessity of Experiential and Hands-on Learning; and (4) Variation in Warrant for Technology Use. Findings illustrate strengths and limitations of a technology course in a preservice PETE program as well as its potential benefits and impediments to manifesting teacher change.

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Iva Obrusnikova and Dannielle L. Miccinello

The study assessed parental perceptions of the benefits of physical activity (PA) and the factors that influence participation of children with autism spectrum disorders in PA after school. Data were collected from 103 parents using an online open-ended questionnaire and focus-group interviews. Data were analyzed using a socioecological model. Parents provided 225 responses that were coded as advantages, 106 as disadvantages, 225 as facilitators, and 250 as barriers of PA. The most frequently reported advantages were physical, followed by psychosocial, and cognitive. Disadvantages were psychosocial and physical. The most frequently reported barriers were intrapersonal, followed by interpersonal, physical, community, and institutional. Facilitators were intrapersonal, followed by physical, interpersonal, community, and institutional. Public policy factors were elicited in the interviews.

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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Lindsay Hammond

Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) tend to have low rates of participation in voluntary or prescribed physical activity. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify the barriers, facilitators, and needs influencing physical activity participation of adults with ID within the framework of a social ecological model. A qualitative approach consisted of data collected from surveys and guided focus groups. Participants included adults with ID (n = 6) and their primary caregiver (n = 6). Barriers were categorized under three themes: organizational barriers, individual constraints, and external influences. Examples of subthemes included information dissemination, reliance on others, and caregiver considerations. Facilitators included primary caregivers as champions and camaraderie. Needs centered on family program involvement, improved programmatic structure, and programmatic support. Results indicate the need for community programs to examine barriers and facilitators applicable to their unique setting and population across all levels of a social ecological model.

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Margaret L. Søvik, Torill Larsen, Hege Eikeland Tjomsland, Oddrun Samdal and Bente Wold

This study explores grassroots coaches’ (GCs’) perceptions of the content of a one-day coach education workshop, the programme’s applicability, their use of the content, and the perceived barriers to implementing the programme in their coaching practice. One hundred and thirteen GCs completed follow-up questionnaires, while 12 of them were also interviewed. Descriptive statistics and qualitative analyses were conducted. The quantitative results indicate that the GCs were mainly positive about the programme content and found it easy to apply and adapt to. However, few GCs seemed to apply the programme principles to a great extent. The qualitative results illustrate that the GCs reported barriers that seem to relate to programme characteristics, in particular a lack of follow-up; individual factors, such as a lack of time; and organizational factors, like the lack of a shared understanding of the programme with their co-coaches, and lack of support from club officials. Thus, the findings imply that there is a need for an extended focus on organisational factors, especially support by club officials, when implementing coach education content in youth sports. Future recommendations for implementation of coach education workshops for youth grassroots coaches have been suggested, where support for the coaches is a key issue.

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Lauren J. Lieberman, Cathy Houston-Wilson and Francis M. Kozub

The purpose of this study was to examine barriers perceived by teachers when including students with visual impairments in general physical education. Teachers (52 males, 96 females) who had children with visual impairments in their physical education classes were surveyed prior to in-service workshop participation. The most prevalent barriers were professional preparation, equipment, programming, and time. A logistic regression analysis, regressing gender, in-service training, number of students with visual impairments taught, masters degree attained, masters hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), undergraduate hours spent on visual impairments (yes or no), and years of experience failed to indicate significant predictors of professional preparation as a barrier, Model χ2 (6, n = 148) = 4.48, p > .05.

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Eva A. Jaarsma, Rienk Dekker, Steven A. Koopmans, Pieter U. Dijkstra and Jan H.B. Geertzen

We examined barriers to and facilitators of sports participation in people with visual impairments. Participants registered at Royal Visio, Bartiméus, and the Eye Association were invited to complete a questionnaire (telephone or online). Six hundred forty-eight of the invited participants (13%) completed the questionnaire, and 63% of the respondents reported sports participation. Walking (43%), fitness (34%), and cycling (34%) were frequently mentioned sports. Costs, lack of peers/buddies, and visual impairment were negatively associated with sports participation, whereas higher education and computer (software) use were positively associated. The most important personal barrier was visual impairment; transport was the most important environmental barrier. Active participants also mentioned dependence on others as a personal barrier. The most important personal facilitators were health, fun, and social contacts; support from family was the most important environmental facilitator. To improve sports participation in people with visual impairments, the emphasis in a sports program should be on the positive aspects of sports, such as fun, health, and social contacts.