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Tanya Prewitt-White, Christopher P. Connolly, Yuri Feito, Alexandra Bladek, Sarah Forsythe, Logan Hamel and Mary Ryan McChesney

White ( 2002 ) suggested that trained pregnant athletes are likely able to safely engage in activities beyond the conservative intensities previously recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) ( Artal & O’toole, 2003 ). Given the many barriers to physical activity

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Nicola Brown and Yasmin Bowmer

-Tilaki & Heidari, 2006 ). This highlights the need for women to be supported in increasing their PA levels. In order to develop optimal PA interventions, it is important to identify the barriers and motivators to engage in PA. Typically, individuals who perceive more exercise benefits and fewer exercise barriers

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Anne Tjønndal

paper, I will discuss some of the barriers women experience as participants in boxing, either as athletes or as coaches. Boxing is well known as a traditional male sport, a masculine ritual, and is in most respects shaped by hegemonic masculinity ( Gems, 2014 ; Mennesson, 2000 ; Owton, 2015 ). This

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Christopher R. Hill, Deborah L. Feltz, Stephen Samendinger and Karin A. Pfeiffer

health risks highlight the importance of examining variables that could effect increases in childhood PA. The influence of one’s self-efficacy beliefs to overcome barriers shows promise in the physical domain as a common positive correlate with adolescent PA ( Bauman et al., 2012 , Craggs, Corder, van

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Carrie W. LeCrom, Brendan Dwyer and Gregory Greenhalgh

( Schulenkorf et al., 2016 , p. 35). This above statement led us to the consideration of the current study, a conceptual piece framed around addressing the barriers to theory development in SFD and discussing the potential solutions to some of the challenges. Theory development, application, and evaluation take

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Danielle R. Brittain, Nancy C. Gyurcsik and Mary McElroy

Despite the health benefits derived from regular participation in moderate physical activity, the majority of adult lesbians are not physically active. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between moderate physical activity and the perceived presence and extent of limitation of 30 general and 10 lesbian-specific barriers. The participants were 516 self-identified adult lesbians who completed a web-based survey. Compared to physically active participants, participants who were insufficiently active reported more general barriers and a significantly higher extent of limitation of general and lesbian-specific barriers overall. Insufficiently active participants also differed in the perceived presence of one of the five most frequently experienced barriers and in the extent of limitation of three of those five barriers. The study’s findings suggest that the impact of barriers may be alleviated through the use of appropriately tailored strategies to help lesbians cope with them. Future research should further examine whether lesbians experience additional population-specific barriers.

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Kari Fasting and Mari-Kristin Sisjord

This study attempts to measure quantitative and qualitative dimensions of leisure time in an effort to see how they are related to the sport participation rates of women and men. Using data collected from a sample of 83 women and 128 men—all of whom were employed, married parents—it was found that women did more housework than men did but the time spent on housework did not account for differences in participation rates for either women or men. Most important in explaining participation in sports among women was the average number of hours per week their spouses were away from home in the evenings. On the basis of these findings it was concluded that the quantitative dimensions of leisure were not associated with sport participation rates; however, the qualitative dimensions of leisure were associated with barriers to participation for women but not for men. The data suggested that compared to men, women were less likely to feel they had the freedom to participate in sport. This difference was explained in terms of a combination of factors including differential socialization and different patterns of motivation related to sport participation among women and men.

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Rikki A. Cannioto

Despite much research investigating physical activity (PA) barriers for American women, the PA barriers experienced by overweight and obese working women remain largely unexamined. This preliminary investigation assessed the PA barriers, behaviors, and beliefs of 40 overweight/obese women with full-time desk jobs for the subsequent development and implementation of a tailored “healthy weight” wellness program. Based on qualitative and quantitative data analysis, the majority of participants weren’t sufficiently active, citing motivation and time as their biggest perceived barriers. Statistically significant relationships were identified between BMI and barrier numbers, PA levels, PA enjoyment, and PA importance; as well as between PA levels and barrier numbers, PA enjoyment, and PA importance. An effective PA intervention should emphasize 300 minutes of PA a week, while incorporating evidence-based behavioral strategies (i.e., goal setting, self-monitoring, contingency management, social support, stimulus control, and cognitive restructuring) that have been proven to decrease barriers and increase PA adherence among overweight and obese individuals.

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Arlene E. Hall

This study is an examintion of the effects of race and income on leisure-time physical activity among women (n = 116). Perceived benefits of and barriers to participating in leisure-time physical activity were also compared. A regression model utilizing social cognitive variables was used to explore factors which may predict physical activity participation. No significant differences emerged between the groups regarding the amount of physical activity they reported either by race or socioeconomic status. Time expenditure emerged significantly different by race (p < .001) and income (p < .000); middle-income women reported time as a barrier more than lower-income women and Whites were likelier to report time as a barrier more than Blacks. Middle-income women perceived greater (p < .01) physical performance benefits from exercise than lower-income women. Social interaction, time expenditure, and body mass index were the strongest predictors of physical activity. The data and findings could be useful for increaseing our understanding of economic and racial disparities in physical activity participation and garnish information for use in constructing interven programs.

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Noni Zaharia and Anastasios Kaburakis

Collaboration between industry and academia is a subject of great interest to sport management academics and sport industry leaders in the United States. However, there is a lack of research regarding barriers to sport industry–academia collaborations and bridging the gap between sport management research and practitioners. The aim of the study was to explore trends in collaboration barriers among various research involvement levels of U.S. sport firms with sport management academia. Data were gathered from 303 sport managers working for U.S. sport companies. Results indicated several barriers for research collaborations between the U.S. sport industry and academia. Such barriers include transactional barriers, sport industry subsectors, sport organizations’ location, and age and education level of respondents.