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Emma E. Sypes, Genevieve Newton and Zakkoyya H. Lewis

Background: Electronic activity monitor systems (EAMSs) have been readily incorporated into physical activity (PA) and weight-loss interventions to facilitate self-monitoring PA behavior. A comprehensive review is required to better understand their utility as intervention modalities in nonclinical populations. Methods: Medscape, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane databases were searched in February 2017, with a search update in April 2017. Citation screening, risk of bias assessment, and an intensity evaluation were conducted in duplicate by 2 investigators. Results: The search returned 409 unique citations. Of which, 22 citations met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found significant between-group differences: 3 in weight loss, 3 in PA levels, and 1 in both weight loss and PA levels. Effective interventions lasted 6 weeks to 12 months. Positive health outcomes were demonstrated when users interacted with multiple features of the EAMS and had access to other services, such as personal coaching or environmental reinforcement. Conclusions: When control and intervention groups have access to the same components, such as counseling or group interaction, the addition of an EAMS for self-monitoring within the intervention group may not confer more favorable results. Risk of performance bias and low sample sizes should be addressed in future trials to generate more reliable findings.

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Sarah Lawrason, Jennifer Turnnidge, Luc J. Martin and Jean Côté

behavior-change techniques throughout ( Allan et al., 2018 ) that are informed by the Behaviour Change Wheel ( Michie, van Stralen, & West, 2011 ). The Behaviour Change Wheel is a framework that informs the use of context-specific and targeted programs for changing a broad spectrum of behaviors. At the

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

E , et al . Teachable moments for health behaviour change and intermediate patient outcomes . Patient Educ Couns . 2014 ; 96 ( 1 ): 43 – 49 . doi:10.1016/j.pec.2014.03.014 24856449 10.1016/j.pec.2014.03.014 36. Lawson PJ , Flocke S . Teachable moments for health behaviour change: a concept

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Rebecca Stanley, Rachel Jones, Christian Swann, Hayley Christian, Julie Sherring, Trevor Shilton and Anthony Okely

change wheel: a new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions . Implement Sci . 2011 ; 6 : 42 . PubMed ID: 21513547 doi:10.1186/1748-5908-6-42 10.1186/1748-5908-6-42 21513547 Erratum: Stanley et al. (2020) In the original publication of this article, author Christian Swann

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Laura J. McGowan, Rachael Powell and David P. French

. , & Michie , S. ( 2012 ). Validation of the theoretical domains framework for use in behaviour change and implementation research . Implementation Science, 7 , 37 . PubMed ID: 22530986 doi:10.1186/1748-5908-7-37 10.1186/1748-5908-7-37 Chastin , S. , Fitzpatrick , N. , Andrews , M. , & DiCroce

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Corliss Bean, Tineke Dineen and Mary Jung

diabetes prevention lifestyle behaviour change program in the community [Manuscript submitted for publication]. Bean , C. , Forneris , T. , & Halsall , T. ( 2014 ). Girls Just Wanna Have Fun: A process evaluation of a female youth-driven physical activity-based life skills program . Springerplus

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Lubna Abdul Razak, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Jannah Jones, Sze Lin Yoong, Alice Grady, Meghan Finch, Kirsty Seward, Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet, Rimante Ronto, Ben Elton and Luke Wolfenden

Paediatr Child Health . 2016 ; 52 ( 7 ): 765 – 770 . PubMed ID: 27244222 doi:10.1111/jpc.13252 10.1111/jpc.13252 27244222 27. Atkins L , Francis J , Islam R , et al . A guide to using the theoretical domains framework of behaviour change to investigate implementation problems . Implement Sci

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Justin Kompf

method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions . Implement Sci . 2011 ; 6 : 24 . 10.1186/1748-5908-6-42 9. Ayotte BJ , Margrett JA , Patrick JH . Physical activity in middle-aged and young-old adults . J Health Psychol . 2010 ; 15 ( 2 ): 173 – 185 . PubMed ID

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Heather J. Leach, Katie B. Potter and Mary C. Hidde

.1007/s10549-014-3255-5 15. Short CE , James EL , Stacey F , Plotnikoff RC . A qualitative synthesis of trials promoting physical activity behaviour change among post-treatment breast cancer survivors . J Cancer Surviv . 2013 ; 7 ( 4 ): 570 – 581 . PubMed ID: 23888337 doi:10.1007/s11764

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Melissa N. Galea Holmes, John A. Weinman and Lindsay M. Bearne

, L.M. ( 2013 ). Do behaviour-change techniques contribute to the effectiveness of exercise therapy in patients with intermittent claudication? A systematic review . European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 46 ( 1 ), 132 – 141 . PubMed ID: 23664887 doi:10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.03.030 10