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Nobuo Takeshima, Masatoshi Nakata, Fumio Kobayashi, Kiyoji Tanaka and Michael L. Pollock

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of head-out-of-water immersion (HOI) on elderly subjects’ heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) responses to graded walking exercise. Subjects were 15 elderly participants. who selected three walking speeds and exercised for 6 min at each intensity on land and in the water. HOI exercise was carried out with subjects immersed to the level of the axilla. HR response at a given V̇O2 during walking with HOI was similar to the values found for walking on land, in contrast to published data on young subjects. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that water immersion-induced central redistribution of blood volume changes with advancing age and may lead to a difference in the HR–V̇O2 relationship during HOI walking in the elderly compared to the young. This has important implications for prescribing exercise to the elderly when using treadmill HR values for HOI walking training.

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Rochelle R. Costa, Adriana C.K. Buttelli, Leandro Coconcelli, Laura F. Pereira, Alexandra F. Vieira, Alex de O. Fagundes, Juliano B. Farinha, Thais Reichert, Ricardo Stein and Luiz F.M. Kruel

promotes the suppression of the renin–angiotensin system, 33 – 35 which leads to increased blood volume and, consequently, increased distensibility of the cardiac chambers. 36 This, in turn, stimulates a reduction in circulating norepinephrine and vasopressin levels, besides the activity of plasmatic

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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić and Urho M. Kujala

of increased blood volume with neurogenesis, thus, a blood volume increase in humans may be correlated with enhanced hippocampal function. Brain regions showing increased GM volumes associated with larger amount of PA are also those that are the most vulnerable to aging and that show early structural

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Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Belinda M. Brown

cerebral blood volume in primary motor cortex of the rat . Neuroscience, 117 ( 4 ), 1037 – 1046 . PubMed ID: 12654355 doi:10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00664-4 10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00664-4 Tierney , M.C. , Black , S.E. , Szalai , J.P. , Snow , W.G. , Fisher , R.H. Nadon , G. , & Chui , H

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

with Parkinson’s disease demonstrated the higher enslaving phenomenon in patients during a force ramp task in the pressing position compared with healthy adults ( Park et al., 2012 ). Making connections between sensorimotor performance and the corresponding brain activities, cerebral structure, blood

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experienced a cut in or removal of funding, or a loss of sponsorship, forcing them to return quickly after childbirth. Postpartum, there were expectations of enhanced physiological performance as a result of increased blood volume and greater range of movement in joints. This advantage was counterbalanced by

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Anna-Eva Prick, Jacomine de Lange, Erik Scherder, Jos Twisk and Anne Margriet Pot

cerebral blood volume in primary motor cortex of the rat . Neuroscience , 117 ( 4 ), 1037 – 1046 . PubMed doi:10.1016 12654355 10.1016/S0306-4522(02)00664-4 Teri , L. , Gibbons , L.E. , McCurry , S.M. , Logsdon , R.G. , Buchner , D.M. , Barlow , W.E. , … Larson , E.B. ( 2003 ). Exercise

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Diego de Alcantara Borba, Eduardo da Silva Alves, João Paulo Pereira Rosa, Lucas Alves Facundo, Carlos Magno Amaral Costa, Aldo Coelho Silva, Fernanda Veruska Narciso, Andressa Silva and Marco Túlio de Mello

(55%, 65%, 75%, and 85% of VO 2 max) in athletes. These concentrations were corrected by a decrease in blood volume. Total IGF-1 increased during exercise when its values were not corrected for blood volume. When the results were corrected for blood volume, there was no change in total IGF-1

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Tracey Covassin, Kyle M. Petit and Morgan Anderson

Source . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018 Developmental factors specific to the immature brain appear to play a role in predisposing youth to adverse outcomes after concussion. Specifically, brain water content, cerebral blood volume, level of myelination, and skull geometry have been

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Christopher P. Connolly, Jordana Dahmen, Robert D. Catena, Nigel Campbell and Alexander H.K. Montoye

throughout gestation, including increased abdominal mass, increased blood volume, and heightened joint laxity ( Hill & Pickinpaugh, 2008 ). These changes result in altered gait and movement speeds in the later pregnancy stages and also alter the orientation of hip-worn monitors (due to increased abdominal