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Disa J. Smee, Anthony Walker, Ben Rattray, Julie A. Cooke, Ben G. Serpell and Kate L. Pumpa

Australian fire services, like many jurisdictions worldwide, are experiencing an ageing workforce. As occurs in the general population ( Kyle et al., 2001 ), increasing age is linked with changes in the body composition of urban firefighters ( Walker et al., 2014 ). Specifically, with age, urban

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Thomas Kyriazis, Gerasimos Terzis, Giorgos Karampatsos, Stavros Kavouras and Giorgos Georgiadis


The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between fat-free mass and shot put performance at the beginning of the winter preparation cycle and at the first peak of the season (12 wk later) in well-trained shot-putters using the rotational style.


Eight national-level shot put athletes followed their individual training programs for a period of 12 wk aiming at the national indoor championship. Shot put performance with the rotational style as well as from the power position was determined before and after this 12 wk period. Body composition was determined before and after the training period with dual x-ray absorptiometry.


Shot put from the power position was increased by 3% (P = .03) while shot put with the rotational style was increased by 6.5% (P < .01). Fat-free mass, body fat and bone mineral density were not altered after the training period. The correlation coefficient between fat-free mass and shot put performance from the power position was significant (r = .76 preseason vs r = .66, competition; P < .05). The correlation coefficient between fat-free mass and shot put performance with the rotational style was significant at the beginning of the training period (r = .70, P < .05) but it was decreased to moderate and nonsignificant levels at competition (r = .55, ns).


These results suggest that the increase of fat-free mass might not be the most essential element for competition when the rotational shot put style is involved.

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Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad, Damian J. Marsh, Karen Hind and Gary J. Slater

in body composition, such as increases in lean mass (LM), are associated with favorable changes in a number of performance traits ( Bilsborough et al., 2016 ; Crewther et al., 2013 ). Therefore, being able to accurately quantify preseason physique changes is of value to sport science practitioners

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Trent Stellingwerff

Although the concept of training periodization has been developing over the last 70 years, the concept of nutrition and body composition periodization synched with training and competition demands is just emerging ( Jeukendrup, 2017 ; Stellingwerff et al., 2007 , 2011 ). However, beyond these

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Christopher Rosimus

A squash player’s ability to perform high-intensity variable movements is a key determinant of success at the elite level ( Wilkinson et al., 2012 ). The body composition of a squash player may affect performance as carrying excessive body fat may increase injury risk and impair agility and speed

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M. Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E. Eastman, Brian J. Wallace, Jody L. Clasey and Haley C. Bergstrom

, 13 Thus, CP and AWC represent distinct parameters related to metabolic characteristics of the whole body and active muscle tissue, respectively. There is limited evidence on the contribution of specific body-composition characteristics (thigh cross-sectional area, whole-body fat percentage [%BF

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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

Dietary protein is widely regarded as a key nutrient for allowing optimal training adaptation ( Tipton, 2008 ) and optimizing body composition ( Hector & Phillips, 2018 ; Murphy et al., 2015 ) in athletes including track and field athletes. Track and field athletics encompasses a broad spectrum of

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Jessica M. Stephens, Shona L. Halson, Joanna Miller, Gary J. Slater, Dale W. Chapman and Christopher D. Askew

capacity may be reduced if the CWI protocol is too severe for individuals with low body fat and high BSA:M, as it may result in overcooling. CWI is often applied unilaterally, with the same immersion protocol implemented for all athletes regardless of individual differences in body composition. A greater

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Linda B. Houtkooper, Veronica A. Mullins, Scott B. Going, C. Harmon Brown and Timothy G. Lohman

This study characterized body composition profiles of elite American heptathletes and cross-validated skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) field method equations for estimation of percent body fat (%Fat) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the criterion. Weight, height, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), bone mineral density (BMD), and %Fat were measured in 19 heptathletes using standard measurement protocols for DXA, SKFs and BIA. The ages, heights, and weights were respectively 25.5 ± 3.5 years, 175.0 ± 6.6 cm, 67.3 ± 7.1 kg. DXA estimates of mean ± SD values for body composition variables were 57.2 ± 6.1 kg FFM, 10.1 ± 2.6 kg FM, 114 ± 7% BMD for age/racial reference group, and 15 ± 3.0 %Fat. Ranges of bias values for %Fat (DXA minus SKF or BIA) were, respectively, −0.5 to 1.6% and −5.5 to −1.2%. Ranges for standard errors of estimate and total errors were, respectively, SKF 2.4–2.5%, 2.4–2.8% and BIA 3.0%, 5.0–6.5%. Regression analyses of the field methods on DXA were significant (p < .05) for all SKF equations but not BIA equations. This study demonstrates that elite American heptathletes are lean, have high levels of BMD, and that SKF equations provide more accurate estimates of %Fat relative to DXA than estimates from BIA equations.

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Adam J. Zemski, Shelley E. Keating, Elizabeth M. Broad and Gary J. Slater

), distinct differences in body composition exist. Forwards have consistently been shown to be heavier, taller, and possess more fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM), whereas backs display proportionally lower body fat ( Lees et al., 2017 ; Zemski et al., 2015 ). Optimal body composition assists athletes in