It has been suggested that weight loss and regain, known as weight cycling, may result in greater body fatness and increased upper body fat distribution which may lead to adverse health consequences. These are concerns that may discourage some obese women from undergoing weight loss efforts. We retested 44 obese women, who took part in one of two weight control studies conducted in our laboratory, at either 6 or 12 months posttreatment. The followup study was performed to determine whether percent body fat and waist/hip ratio (WHR) had increased in those subjects who failed to maintain their weight loss. Subjects lost (mean + SD) 8.6 + 1.2 kg body weight, of which 7.0 + 1.0 kg was fat, and reduced their WHR by 0.03 + 0.006 (all p’s < .01) after either 12 or 16 weeks of treatment comprised of eating a low-fat diet, and in most cases performing endurance exercise training. At followup subjects were divided into groups based on the amount of weight regained. Those who regained (n=19) their lost weight were not fatter nor was their WHR higher than before the study began. These results do not support claims that weight cycling, in this case a single cycle, increases overall percentage of body fat or causes a redistribution of fat to the abdominal region of women.
Roger L. Hammer, Daryl McCombs and A. Garth Fisher
Susan M. Moen, Charlotte F. Sanborn and Nancy DiMarco
The present study was conducted to compare dietary intakes and percentage of body fat between adolescent female runners and sedentary adolescent females. Thirty white girls, aged 15-18 years, served as subjects. Twenty had run between 20 and 55 miles per week for the past 1-5 years. The ten controls had not exercised for at least the past year other than in physical education classes. Nutrient intake was analyzed from 3-day dietary records. Percentage of body fat was estimated using hydrostatic weighing and skinfold thicknesses measured at the right triceps and calf. No significant differences were found between the 20 runners and the 10 controls in intakes of energy, calcium, or iron. Although daily caloric intakes were not higher for the runners, the two groups differed in percentage of body fat; the mean value for the runners was significantly lower than the control group’s value. Both groups consumed greater than recommended percentages of fat and less than recommended percentages of carbohydrates. In addition, both calcium and iron consumptions were below recommended values. In summary, the female runners had typically poor American teenage diets. Overall, these athletes should be instructed to increase their total kilocalories, consume a greater percentage of carbohydrates, and select foods high in calcium and iron.
Morphological parameters (stature, weight, segment lengths, diameters, circumferences, body composition), functional characteristics (work capacity, respiratory performance, static strength of hand) and aspects of health- and skill-related fitness (explosive strength, speed, anaerobic and aerobic endurance, agility) of 141 well-trained young female field hockey players (10 to 18 y) were examined and analyzed. The main purpose of the investigation was to study growth trends of these parameters of female field hockey players and to analyze the character and feature of their development.
Standard anthropometric measurements were used for evaluation of morphological characteristics. Matiegka’s equations were used for computation of body composition’s parameters. Modification of the Harvard step test was used for estimation of physical capacity. Respiratory performance was evaluated using vitalograph. Static strength of the hands was obtained using a handgrip. Characteristics of health- and skill-related fitness were evaluated using the following test battery: standing broad jump, 30 m dash run, flying 30 m test, 210 yards shuttle run, 2000 m run, push-ups and 20 m zig-zag run.
Results of the study were as follows: the functional characteristics have the greatest total increase (about 108-144 %) during the age span considered (from 10 to 18 years). Stature and other length parameters increased about 18-20 %. The periods of the acceleration of increases in morphological parameters precede the periods of the sizable increases in functional parameters. Based upon the analysis of aspects of health- and skill-related fitness of players training and practicing in hockey has a beneficial effect on this group of characteristics. Based on the results of the study, the optimum periods for speed, strength and endurance training of female hockey players are exposed.
Gina Sobrero, Scott Arnett, Mark Schafer, Whitley Stone, T. A. Tolbert, Amanda Salyer-Funk, Jason Crandall, Lauren B. Farley, Josh Brown, Scott Lyons, Travis Esslinger, Keri Esslinger and Jill Maples
High intensity functional training (HIFT) emphasizes constantly varied, high intensity, functional activity by programming strength and conditioning exercises, gymnastics, Olympic weightlifting, and specialty movements. Conversely, traditional circuit training (TCT) programs aim to improve muscular fitness by utilizing the progressive overload principle, similar movements weekly, and specified work-to-rest ratios. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if differences exist in health and performance measures in women participating in HIFT or TCT after a six-week training program. Recreationally active women were randomly assigned to a HIFT (n = 8, age 26.0 + 7.3 yrs) or TCT (n = 11, age 26.3 + 9.6 yrs) group. Participants trained three days a week for six weeks with certified trainers. Investigators examined body composition (BC), aerobic and anaerobic capacity, muscular strength, endurance, flexibility, power, and agility. Repeated-measures ANOVA were used for statistical analyses with an alpha level of 0.05. Both groups increased body mass (p = .011), and improved muscular endurance (p < .000), upper body strength (p = .007), lower body power (p = .029) and agility (p = .003). In addition, the HIFT group decreased body fat (BF) %, while the TCT group increased BF% (p = .011). No changes were observed in aerobic or anaerobic capacity, flexibility, upper body power, or lower body stair climbing power. Newer, high intensity functional exercise programs such as HIFT may have better results on BC and similar effects when compared with TCT programs on health and fitness variables such as musculoskeletal strength and performance.
Gabrielle Ringenberg, Jill M. Maples and Rachel A. Tinius
by 1000 to obtain milliliters of oxygen consumed per kilogram lean body mass per minute which neutralizes the effect of body composition to better assess fitness. Statistical Analysis Based on the sample size ( N = 18), the correlations between actual and predicted VO 2max , and the α value set at 0
Christina A. Geithner, Claire E. Molenaar, Tommy Henriksson, Anncristine Fjellman-Wiklund and Kajsa Gilenstam
1 SD after. Maturity-associated differences, or differences among early, average, and late maturers, are present in body size (height and weight), body composition, and fitness in both sexes. Early-maturing individuals are taller and heavier relative to their average- and late-maturing peers early
Orlagh Farmer, Donna Duffy, Kevin Cahill, Diarmuid Lester, Sarahjane Belton and Wesley O’Brien
context, as girls are less active than boys. Several studies indicate that OYS is positively associated with increased PA, FMS, and areas of health, including fitness, healthy body composition, and self-concept ( Hendrix, Prins, & Dekkers, 2014 ). By the time children reach 10 years of age, they should
Alexander J. Bedard, Kevin A. Bigelman, Lynn R. Fielitz, Jeffrey D. Coelho, William B. Kobbe, Renard O. Barone, Nicholas H. Gist and John E. Palmer
Academy. When attempting to integrate women into the course glove policy, the two aforementioned factors governing glove selection were considered. It was noted that due to the differences in body composition previously described, women will typically generate less force than their male counterparts of
Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima and Elyse Bierut
as type II diabetes, heart disease, peripheral vascular disease, and some types of cancer for women, but it can help women achieve a healthy body composition (lean mass and fat mass) and prevent obesity ( Brown et al., 2007 ). Thus, there are clear benefits to regularly participating in intensive or
Tanya Prewitt-White, Christopher P. Connolly, Yuri Feito, Alexandra Bladek, Sarah Forsythe, Logan Hamel and Mary Ryan McChesney
.M. , Becker , C. , Carlisle , T. , Gilmore , K. , Hauser , J. , Frye , J. , & Harms , C.A. ( 2015 ). High-intensity functional training improves functional movement and body composition among cancer survivors: A pilot study . European Journal of Cancer Care, 24 ( 6 ), 812 – 817 . PubMed doi