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Sheng H. Kioh, Sumaiyah Mat, Shahrul B. Kamaruzzaman, Fatimah Ibrahim, Mas S. Mokhtar, Noran N. Hairi, Robert G. Cumming, Phyo K. Myint and Maw P. Tan

body mass index (BMI) of ≥30 kg/m 2 , and individuals with a BMI of 25 to <30 kg/m 2 are considered overweight. The BMI is used instead of body weight in isolation, as it adjusts for the effect of height on body weight ( Nuttall, 2015 ). The relationship between a higher BMI and falls in older adults

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Jason D. Vescovi and Greig Watson

have demonstrated a wide range of postmatch changes in body mass (+0.4 to −3.5 kg; Nuccio et al., 2017 ). Changes in body mass for male field hockey players are likely to exceed that observed in their female counterparts (−0.2 to −0.5% reduction in body mass; MacLeod & Sunderland, 2009 ) because

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Nathaniel S. Nye, Drew S. Kafer, Cara Olsen, David H. Carnahan and Paul F. Crawford

, 18 This is significant given the increasing rates of obesity; as of 2012, 34.9% of Americans aged 20 years and older were considered obese 19 [defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ], placing them at additional risk for lower extremity injury. The use of BMI as a measure of body habitus has

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Niall Casserly, Ross Neville, Massimiliano Ditroilo and Adam Grainger

through appropriate conditioning. 12 This challenge is made all the more arduous; however, when typically smaller junior players (forwards = 96.88 [9.0] kg; backs = 81.97 [7.09] kg) 13 must undergo increases in body mass to reach senior norms (forwards = 114.6 [6.3] kg; backs = 92.6 [4.9] kg). 14

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Miti Gupta, Amitabh Dashottar and John D. Borstad

The biomechanical changes due to increased arm mass in individuals with high body mass index (BMI) may lead to altered scapular motions at the shoulder joint. Scapula kinematic alterations are often associated with shoulder pain and pathology, and if present in overweight or obese individuals could impact shoulder health. The purpose of this study was to examine if scapula biomechanics differ between groups separated by BMI. Three-dimensional scapula kinematic data during arm elevation were collected on 41 subjects, and then compared between higher BMI (BMI ≥ 27; n = 10) and lower BMI (BMI ≤ 23; n = 10) individuals, both with and without holding a 1.36 kg (3 lb) weight. Data were analyzed with a mixed-model ANOVA with Group and Elevation Angle the between- and within-subject factors, respectively. The higher BMI group had significantly greater scapula upward rotation than the lower BMI group at 120° for both the unweighted and weighted tasks. Individuals with higher BMI in this study had altered scapulothoracic movement, which may be a strategy to better manage increased arm mass. With increased scapula upward rotation also reported in groups with rotator cuff tears, this study supports the potential link between high BMI, kinematics, and rotator cuff pathology.

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Ching T. Lye, Swarup Mukherjee and Stephen F. Burns

et al., 2006 ). Finally, postprandial TAG is exaggerated in overweight men, even when fasting TAG is normal ( Halkes et al., 2001 ). Moreover, cardiovascular risk factors often present before a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m 2 in Chinese populations ( WHO Expert Consultation, 2004 ), and some

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Richard Larouche, Emily F. Mire, Kevin Belanger, Tiago V. Barreira, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Estelle V. Lambert, Carol Maher, José Maia, Tim Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L. Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Mark S. Tremblay and For the ISCOLE Research Group

gender. Moreover, previous studies conducted in a single country or region may provide less variability in environmental conditions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether outdoor time is associated with PA levels, sedentary time (SED), and body mass index (BMI) z scores in a large sample

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Michael J. Davies, Gail P. Dalsky and Paul M. Vanderburgh

This study employed allometry to scale maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2 max) by body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) in healthy older men. Ratio standards (ml · kg−1 · min−1) derived by dividing absolute V̇O2 max (L · min−1) by BM or LBM often fail to control for the body size variable. The subjects were 73 older men (mean ± SD: age = 69.7 ± 4.3 yrs, BM = 80.2 ± 9.6 kg, height = 174.1 ± 6.9 cm). V̇O2 max was assessed on a treadmill with the modified Balke protocol (V̇O2 max = 2.2 ± 0.4 L · min−1). Body fat (27.7 ± 6.4%) was assessed with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Allometry applied to BM and V̇O2 max determined the BM exponent to be 0.43, suggesting that heavier older men are being penalized when ratio standards are used. Allometric scaling applied to LBM revealed the LBM exponent to be 1.05 (not different from the ratio standard exponent of 1.0). These data suggest that the use of ratio standards to evaluate aerobic fitness in older men penalized fatter older men but not those with higher LBM.

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Haixia Guo, Michaela A. Schenkelberg, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

development, as do certain biological processes such as growth ( 23 ). Measurements of height and weight are commonly used to determine children’s body mass index (BMI) and to monitor growth. BMI and other measures of adiposity have been found to be consistently correlated with MSs among children and

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Amanda Santos, Sandra Silva-Santos, Michael Duncan, Maria João Lagoa, Susana Vale and Jorge Mota

the effect of ST on health in pediatric populations. Indeed, few studies have considered the changes in ST over time along with the associations with change in physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in schoolchildren ( 37 ). Many changes in PA habits, body composition, and health outcomes