body mass index (BMI) of ≥30 kg/m 2 , and individuals with a BMI of 25 to <30 kg/m 2 are considered overweight. The BMI is used instead of body weight in isolation, as it adjusts for the effect of height on body weight ( Nuttall, 2015 ). The relationship between a higher BMI and falls in older adults
Sheng H. Kioh, Sumaiyah Mat, Shahrul B. Kamaruzzaman, Fatimah Ibrahim, Mas S. Mokhtar, Noran N. Hairi, Robert G. Cumming, Phyo K. Myint and Maw P. Tan
Nathaniel S. Nye, Drew S. Kafer, Cara Olsen, David H. Carnahan and Paul F. Crawford
, 18 This is significant given the increasing rates of obesity; as of 2012, 34.9% of Americans aged 20 years and older were considered obese 19 [defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m 2 ], placing them at additional risk for lower extremity injury. The use of BMI as a measure of body habitus has
Michael J. Davies, Gail P. Dalsky and Paul M. Vanderburgh
This study employed allometry to scale maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2 max) by body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM) in healthy older men. Ratio standards (ml · kg−1 · min−1) derived by dividing absolute V̇O2 max (L · min−1) by BM or LBM often fail to control for the body size variable. The subjects were 73 older men (mean ± SD: age = 69.7 ± 4.3 yrs, BM = 80.2 ± 9.6 kg, height = 174.1 ± 6.9 cm). V̇O2 max was assessed on a treadmill with the modified Balke protocol (V̇O2 max = 2.2 ± 0.4 L · min−1). Body fat (27.7 ± 6.4%) was assessed with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Allometry applied to BM and V̇O2 max determined the BM exponent to be 0.43, suggesting that heavier older men are being penalized when ratio standards are used. Allometric scaling applied to LBM revealed the LBM exponent to be 1.05 (not different from the ratio standard exponent of 1.0). These data suggest that the use of ratio standards to evaluate aerobic fitness in older men penalized fatter older men but not those with higher LBM.
Catherine R. Marinac, Mirja Quante, Sara Mariani, Jia Weng, Susan Redline, Elizabeth M. Cespedes Feliciano, J. Aaron Hipp, Daniel Wang, Emily R. Kaplan, Peter James and Jonathan A. Mitchell
within an individual. We, therefore, tested if the timing of meals, light exposure, physical activity, and sleep were associated with body mass index (BMI) in a sample of healthy adults who recorded the timing of behaviors over multiple days using a novel smartphone application and actigraphy. We first
Simone A. Tomaz, Alessandra Prioreschi, Estelle D. Watson, Joanne A. McVeigh, Dale E. Rae, Rachel A. Jones and Catherine E. Draper
, and research on sleep behavior in this age group is lacking from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as South Africa. Furthermore, there has been limited research investigating the relationships between PA, SB, GMS, sleep duration, and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children from LMICs
Bo Shen and Chiren Xu
Researchers have studied exercise determinants primarily from cognitive and social psychology perspectives, which typically give minimal attention to the body as a physical and biological entity. With the belief that tapping into multidimensional variables would potentially help us better understand motivation in exercise, we designed this study to examine the influences of self-efficacy, body mass, and cardiorespiratory fitness level on Chinese college students’ leisure-time exercise motives.
208 college students completed measures of self-efficacy and exercise motives during regular physical education classes. Their body mass and cardiorespiratory fitness level data were derived from the latest annual physical training test. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of self-efficacy, body mass, and cardiorespiratory fitness on exercise motives.
Cardiorespiratory fitness level and self-efficacy in exercise significantly contributed to both psychological and interpersonal motives. Body mass was the only significant predictor for body-related motives. However, analyses of health and fitness motives did not result in any significant predictors.
Physical and psychological variables have both independent and specialized functions on exercise motives. Future motivational studies in exercise should pay greater attention to ecological approaches that account for physical, psychological, and social factors.
Meenakshi Maria Fernandes and Roland Sturm
Physical activity at school can support obesity prevention among youth. This paper assesses the role of existing school physical activity programs for a national cohort from first grade to fifth grade.
We analyzed a cohort from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Kindergarten Cohort which included 8246 children in 970 schools across the country. Growth curve models estimate the effect of physical education (PE) and recess on individual child body mass trajectories controlling for child and school characteristics. Hierarchical models allow for unobserved school and child effects.
Among first graders, 7.0% met the National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommended time for PE and 70.7% met the recommended time for recess in the previous week. Boys experienced a greater increase in body mass than girls. Meeting the NASPE recommended time for recess was associated with a 0.74 unit decrease in BMI (body mass index) percentile for children overall. Meeting the NASPE recommendation for physical education was associated with 1.56 unit decrease in BMI percentile among boys but not girls.
We find evidence that meeting the national recommendations for PE and recess is effective in mitigating body mass increase among children.
Krista Schroeder, Martha Y. Kubik, Jiwoo Lee, John R. Sirard and Jayne A. Fulkerson
may inform interventions to minimize the decline. 5 – 10 Understanding these associations in preadolescents at risk for poor health outcomes, such as preadolescents with elevated body mass index (BMI), is especially important given the harmful health impact of physical inactivity and prolonged
Ann Swartz, Scott Strath, Sarah Parker, Nora Miller and Linda Cieslik
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which physical activity (PA) is related to obesity in older adults when accounting for race/ethnicity.
Cross-sectional data were collected on 214 older adults (72.3 ± 8.9 y; body mass index [BMI] 28.9 ± 6.0; 151 females; 96 non-White). Measures of body height and mass were collected; BMI was calculated. PA was assessed via an electronic pedometer worn for seven consecutive days.
“White” subjects accumulated 5036 ± 286 steps/d. “Non-White” subjects accumulated significantly fewer steps/d (3671 ± 253 steps/d; z = −3.45, P = 0.001). Race/ethnicity, income, age, gender, and steps/d accounted for 27.4% (P < 0.001) of the variance in BMI, with steps/d accounting for 21.2% (P < 0.001). The most influential factor in this model was PA level (β = −0.510), followed by age (β = −0.220), and finally gender being the least influential, but still a significant factor (β = 0.168).
Although race/ethnicity and income have been associated with obesity levels, this study shows that older adults who accumulate more ambulatory activity tend to have healthier levels of BMI irrespective of race/ethnicity or income.
Pedro Curi Hallal, Felipe Fossati Reichert, Fernando Vinholes Siqueira, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Juliano Peixoto Bastos, Marcelo Cozzensa da Silva, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Mario Renato Azevedo and Ulf Ekelund
The objective of this study was to evaluate physical activity (PA) levels in adults and their association with sex, age, and education level across categories of body mass index (BMI).
We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study including 3100 individuals age ≥20 years living in Pelotas, Brazil. PA was assessed using the leisure-time section of the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire. “No PA” was defined as zero minutes of activity/week; “insuffcient PA” was defined as <150 minutes of activity/week; “high PA” was defined as ≥500 minutes of activity/week. BMI was categorized into normal (<25 kg/m2), overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2), and obesity (≥30 kg/m2).
The prevalence of insufficient PA was 71.6% among normal BMI subjects, 71.3% among overweight individuals, and 73.7% among obese ones (P = .67). No PA and high PA were also not associated with BMI. The associations between sex, age, and education level and PA levels tended to be stronger among normal-weight individuals compared with overweight and obese individuals. Among the obese, most associations were not significant. Among normal-weight individuals, higher PA levels were observed in men, young adults, and those with higher education.
Variables associated with leisure-time PA differed between normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals. Studies on PA correlates might benefit from stratifying by BMI.