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Justine J. Reel, Robert A. Bucciere and Sonya SooHoo

Individuals with intellectual disabilities are largely marginalized within society and are understudied as a group (Reel & Bucciere, 2011). Although there have been numerous body image studies with able-bodied athletes, this study represents the first attempt to explore body image of male and female Special Olympics athletes. Athletes (N = 103) were 18–61 years of age (M = 33.34; SD = 11.20) and represented mild to moderate severity for diagnosable intellectual disabilities. Height and weight were measured to determine body mass index (BMI). Body image was verbally assessed via individual interviews using the Figure Ratings Scale and open-ended items. Female athletes had a significantly higher BMI (M = 33.02, SD = 9.28) than male athletes (M = 28.24, SD = 7.38). The BMI means for the female and male athletes met the classifications for obese and overweight, respectively. There was also a negative relationship between body satisfaction and BMI in the overall sample (r = -.46), male athletes only (r = -.51), and female athletes only (r = -.38, indicating that higher BMI was associated with lower body satisfaction. Descriptive statistics revealed that 51% of female athletes and 37% of male athletes desired a thinner physique, whereas 20% of female athletes and 29.6% of male athletes wanted to be larger. There were no significant gender differences in levels of overall body dissatisfaction in this study.

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

effectiveness of integrating exercise in treatment. Exercise has been shown to reinforce weight gain and increase body mass index (BMI) in inpatients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and supervised aerobic and strength training exercises have been shown to effectively reduce eating disorder symptoms ( Calogero

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Laura K. Fewell, Riley Nickols, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Cheri A. Levinson

Restrictive Food Intake Disorder; Rumination = Rumination Disorder; LOS = Length of Stay in days for the total number of days in either residential and/or partial hospitalization programming; admit BMI = Admission Body Mass Index. Procedures This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at

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Christy Greenleaf, Trent Petrie, Justine Reel and Jennifer Carter

Petrie and Greenleaf (2007) presented a psychosocial model of disordered eating for female athletes. Based upon the 2007 model, the present study examined four key psychosocial variables: internalization, body dissatisfaction, restrained eating, and negative affect, as predictors of bulimic symptoms among NCAA Division I female athletes. Two hundred four women (N = 204) participated and were drawn from three different universities and competed in 17 different varsity sports. After controlling for the effects of body mass and social desirability, hierarchical regression analysis showed that the psychosocial variables explained 42% of the variance in bulimic symptoms. In the full model, higher levels of body dissatisfaction, more dietary restraint, and stronger feelings of guilt were associated with bulimic symptomatology. Internalization of the sociocultural ideal as well as feelings of fear, hostility, or sadness were unrelated.

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Uta Kraus, Sophie Clara Holtmann and Tanja Legenbauer

.6) Weight fluctuation (kg) 4.5 (3.3)* 6.1 (3.9) 5.0 (2.9)* 7.6 (4.7) a According to the WHO Classification ( World Health Organization, 2018 ) and standardized percentile curves of body mass index specialized for gender. *Significant effect between competitive and non-competitive rowers. *Significant effect

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Hayley Perelman, Joanna Buscemi, Elizabeth Dougherty and Alissa Haedt-Matt

was not possible to examine differences in body mass index among various groups that may have contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction. However, previous research has found significant reports of body dissatisfaction in collegiate athletes, especially for those at risk of disordered eating

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Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch and Manuel Waldorf

-reported anthropometry. Three participants (1.79%) did not provide information on body weight or height. While the average body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) lay in the normal range between 18.5 and 25, nine out of 165 participants (5.45%) reported weight and height yielding a BMI below 18.5 and were thus underweight

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Shelby J. Martin and Timothy Anderson

). However, when splitting athletes into low and high perfectionism groups, athletes with elevated perfectionism had a significantly greater drive for thinness, dietary restraint, and overall EP, as well as significantly lower body mass than athletes low in perfectionism. Thus, although perfectionism may be

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

malnourished and engaging in unhealthy weight control practices. Athletic body types can elevate body mass index, one indicator of ED risk, and mask the outward appearance of poor nutrition. Eating disorders do not always immediately result in a decline in fitness and sport performance. Athletes may appear

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Sasha Gorrell and Drew A. Anderson

( Hayes, 2013 ) examined whether relations between exercise identity and eating disorder pathology were moderated by reported compulsive exercise, as measured by the CET. Two separate sets of analyses were conducted, one for each race length (half and full marathon). Body mass index (BMI), and gender were