women’s body image. According to this theory, a chronic cultural emphasis on women’s appearance results in a phenomenon called self-objectification . Self-objectification (often referred to as body surveillance ) refers to the internalization of a third-person perspective on one’s body. In other words
Renee Engeln, Margaret Shavlik and Colleen Daly
David E. Conroy, Robert W. Motl and Evelyn G. Hall
Self-presentation has become an increasingly popular topic in exercise and sport psychology, yet few instruments exist to measure this construct. This paper describes two validation studies conducted on the Self-Presentation in Exercise Questionnaire (SPEQ), a paper-and-pencil instrument based on Leary and Kowalski’s (1990) two-component model of impression management. The SPEQ was designed to assess impression motivation (IM) and impression construction (IC) in exercise environments. The first study employed exploratory factor analysis to reduce a pool of 125 content-representative items to a subset of 41 items forming the hypothesized two-factor model of IM and IC. In the second study, the 41 items were further reduced using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in separate samples, and the reduced SPEQ also conformed to the IM and IC factor structure. The second study also provided initial evidence to support the convergent and discriminant validity of the SPEQ with theoretically salient constructs such as body surveillance, perceived physical ability, physical self-presentation confidence, social desirability, and social physique anxiety.
Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson
more autonomous forms of motivation (e.g., intrinsic motivation) rather than controlling forms are positively related to physical activity behavior. Negative body image and, in particular, a focus on the physical appearance of the body (i.e., body surveillance) may impede intrinsic motivation, as this
Sheryl Miller and Mary Fry
social comparison and body surveillance . Appetite, 59 , 796 – 805 . PubMed ID: 22925847 doi:10.1016/j.appet.2012.08.019 10.1016/j.appet.2012.08.019 Fry , M.D. , & Gano-Overway , L.A. ( 2010 ). Exploring contributions of the caring climate to the youth sport setting . Journal of Applied Sport