This study investigated the effects of progressive mild dehydration during cycling on whole-body substrate oxidation and skeletal-muscle metabolism in recreationally active men. Subjects (N = 9) cycled for 120 min at ~65% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak 22.7 °C, 32% relative humidity) with water to replace sweat losses (HYD) or without fluid (DEH). Blood samples were taken at rest and every 20 min, and muscle biopsies were taken at rest and at 40, 80, and 120 min of exercise. Subjects lost 0.8%, 1.8%, and 2.7% body mass (BM) after 40, 80, and 120 min of cycling in the DEH trial while sweat loss was not significantly different between trials. Heart rate was greater in the DEH trial from 60 to 120 min, and core temperature was greater from 75 to 120 min. Rating of perceived exertion was higher in the DEH trial from 30 to 120 min. There were no differences in VO2, respiratory-exchange ratio, total carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (HYD 312 ± 9 vs. DEH 307 ± 10 g), or sweat rate between trials. Blood lactate was significantly greater in the DEH trial from 20 to 120 min with no difference in plasma free fatty acids or epinephrine. Glycogenolysis was significantly greater (24%) over the entire DEH vs. HYD trial (433 ± 44 vs. 349 ± 27 mmol · kg−1 · dm−1). In conclusion, dehydration of <2% BM elevated physiological parameters and perceived exertion, as well as muscle glycogenolysis, during exercise without affecting whole-body CHO oxidation.
Heather M. Logan-Sprenger, George J. F. Heigenhauser, Graham L. Jones and Lawrence L. Spriet
Cyril Schmit, Rob Duffield, Christophe Hausswirth, Jeanick Brisswalter and Yann Le Meur
.7 (1.6) Abbreviations: BML, body-mass loss; C, control; HA-H, heat acclimation at high exercise intensity; HA-L, heat acclimation at low exercise intensity; HR, heart rate; max, maximum; RPE, rating of perceived exertion; T core , core temperature; TT, time trial; WU, warm-up; AU, arbitrary units. Note
Joseph F. Seay, Brett R. Ely, Robert W. Kenefick, Shane G. Sauer and Samuel N. Cheuvront
We examined the effect of body water deficits on standing balance and sought to determine if plasma hyperosmolality (Posm) and/or volume reduction (%ΔVplasma) exerted independent effects. Nine healthy volunteers completed three experimental trials which consisted of a euhydration (EUH) balance test, a water deficit session and a hypohydration (HYP) balance test. Hypohydration was achieved both by exercise-heat stress to 3% and 5% body mass loss (BML), and by a diuretic to 3% BML. Standing balance was assessed during quiet standing on a force platform with eyes open and closed. With eyes closed, hypohydration significantly decreased medial-lateral sway path and velocity by 13% (both p < .040). However, 95% confidence intervals for the mean difference between EUH and HYP were all within the coefficient of variation of EUH measures, indicating limited practical importance. Neither Vplasma loss nor Posm increases were associated with changes in balance. We concluded that standing balance was not altered by hypohydration.
Karen Soo and Geraldine Naughton
This study investigated the hydration profile of high-performance female cricket players competing at a national tournament. The profile comprised hydration monitoring (n = 18) and a questionnaire (n = 20). Our objectives were to 1) advance the understanding of fluid losses in cricket sessions across a tournament and 2) assess the hydration knowledge and practices in female cricket players. Body mass before and after each game inning was recorded in order to estimate sweat rate, sweat loss, and percentage body-mass loss. Comparisons were made between groups categorized according to level of activity during each inning. When sweat rates were estimated according to actual activity time, results were in the range of those in other female team sports but less than results from male cricket players. A range of knowledge of hydration issues was also observed. This study supports the need for individualized hydration recommendations and provides direction for further hydration education in women’s cricket.
Stephen A. Mears and Susan M. Shirreffs
Exercising in cold environments results in water losses, yet examination of resultant voluntary water intake has focused on warm conditions. The purpose of the study was to assess voluntary water intake during and following exercise in a cold compared with a warm environment. Ten healthy males (22 ± 2 years, 67.8 ± 7.0 kg, 1.77 ± 0.06 m, VO2peak 60.5 ± 8.9 ml·kg−1·min−1) completed two trials (7–8 days). In each trial subjects sat for 30 min before cycling at 70% VO2peak (162 ± 27W) for 60 min in 25.0 ± 0.1 °C, 50.8 ± 1.5% relative humidity (RH; warm) or 0.4 ± 1.0 °C, 68.8 ± 7.5% RH (cold). Subjects then sat for 120 min at 22.2 ± 1.2 °C, 50.5 ± 8.0% RH. Ad libitum drinking was allowed during the exercise and recovery periods. Urine volume, body mass, serum osmolality, and sensations of thirst were measured at baseline, postexercise and after 60 and 120 min of the recovery period. Sweat loss was greater in the warm trial (0.96 ± 0.18 l v 0.48 ± 0.15 l; p < .0001) but body mass losses over the trials were similar (1.15 ± 0.34% (cold) v 1.03 ± 0.26% (warm)). More water was consumed throughout the duration of the warm trial (0.81 ± 0.42 l v 0.50 ± 0.49 l; p = .001). Cumulative urine output was greater in the cold trial (0.81 ± 0.46 v 0.54 ± 0.31 l; p = .036). Postexercise serum osmolality was higher compared with baseline in the cold (292 ± 2 v 287 ± 3 mOsm.kg−1, p < .0001) and warm trials (288 ± 5 v 285 ± 4 mOsm·kg−1; p = .048). Thirst sensations were similar between trials (p > .05). Ad libitum water intake adjusted so that similar body mass losses occurred in both trials. In the cold there appeared to a blunted thirst response.
Tammie R. Ebert, David T. Martin, Brian Stephens, Warren McDonald and Robert T. Withers
To quantify the fluid and food consumed during a men’s and women’s professional road-cycling tour.
Eight men (age 25 ± 5 y, body mass ± 7.4 kg, and height 177.4 ± 4.5 cm) and 6 women (age 26 ± 4 y, body mass ± 5.6 kg, and height 170.4 ± 5.2 cm) of the Australian Institute of Sport Road Cycling squads participated in the study. The men competed in the 6-d Tour Down Under (Adelaide, Australia), and the women, in the 10-d Tour De L’Aude (Aude, France). Body mass was recorded before and immediately after the race. Cyclists recalled the number of water bottles and amount of food they had consumed.
Men and women recorded body-mass losses of ~2 kg (2.8% body mass) and 1.5 kg (2.6% body mass), respectively, per stage during the long road races. Men had an average fluid intake of 1.0 L/h, whereas women only consumed on average 0.4 L/h. In addition, men consumed CHO at the rate suggested by dietitians (average CHO intake of 48 g/h), but again the women failed to reach recommendations, with an average intake of ~21 g/h during a road stage.
Men appeared to drink and eat during racing in accordance with current nutritional recommendations, but women failed to reach these guidelines. Both men and women finished their races with a body-mass loss of ~2.6% to 2.8%. Further research is required to determine the impact of this loss on road-cycling performance and thermoregulation.
Gethin H. Evans, Jennifer Miller, Sophie Whiteley and Lewis J. James
The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of water and a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution on postexercise rehydration when a standard meal was consumed during rehydration. Eight healthy participants took part in two experimental trials during which they lost 1.5 ± 0.4% of initial body mass via intermittent exercise in the heat. Participants then rehydrated over a 60-min period with water or a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution in a volume equivalent to 150% of their body mass loss during exercise. In addition, a standard meal was ingested during this time which was equivalent to 30% of participants predicted daily energy expenditure. Urine samples were collected before and after exercise and for 3 hr after rehydration. Cumulative urine volume (981 ± 458 ml and 577 ± 345 mL; p = .035) was greater, while percentage fluid retained (50 ± 20% and 70 ± 21%; p = .017) was lower during the water compared with the NaCl trial respectively. A high degree of variability in results was observed with one participant producing 28% more urine and others ranging from 18–83% reduction in urine output during the NaCl trial. The results of this study suggest that after exercise induced dehydration, the ingestion of a 50 mmol/L NaCl solution leads to greater fluid retention compared with water, even when a meal is consumed postexercise. Furthermore, ingestion of plain water may be effective for maintenance of fluid balance when food is consumed in the rehydration period.
George Wilson, Neil Chester, Martin Eubank, Ben Crighton, Barry Drust, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close
Professional jockeys are unique among weight-making athletes, as they are often required to make weight daily and, in many cases, all year-round. Common methods employed by jockeys include dehydration, severe calorie restriction, and sporadic eating, all of which have adverse health effects. In contrast, this article outlines a structured diet and exercise plan, employed by a 22-yr-old professional National Hunt jockey in an attempt to reduce weight from 70.3 to 62.6 kg, that does not rely on any of the aforementioned techniques. Before the intervention, the client’s typical daily energy intake was 8.2 MJ (42% carbohydrate [CHO], 36% fat, 22% protein) consumed in 2 meals only. During the 9-wk intervention, daily energy intake was approximately equivalent to resting metabolic rate, which the athlete consumed as 6 meals per day (7.6 MJ, 46% CHO, 19% fat, 36% protein). This change in frequency and composition of energy intake combined with structured exercise resulted in a total body-mass loss of 8 kg, corresponding to reductions in body fat from 14.5% to 9%. No form of intentional dehydration occurred throughout this period, and mean urine osmolality was 285 mOsm/kg (SD 115 mOsm/kg). In addition, positive changes in mood scores (BRUMS scale) also occurred. The client was now able to ride light for the first time in his career without dehydrating, thereby challenging the cultural practices inherent in the sport.
Ronald J. Maughan, Stuart J. Merson, Nick P. Broad and Susan M. Shirreffs
This study measured fluid balance during a 90-min preseason training session in the first team squad (24 players) of an English Premier League football team. Sweat loss was assessed from changes in body mass after correction for ingested fluids and urine passed. Sweat composition was measured by collection from patches attached to the skin at 4 sites. The weather was warm (24-29 °C), with moderate humidity (46–64%). The mean ± SD body mass loss over the training session was 1.10 ± 0.43 kg, equivalent to a level of dehydration of 1.37 ± 0.54% of the pre-training body mass. Mean fluid intake was 971 ± 303 ml. Estimated total mean sweat loss was 2033 ±413 ml. Mean sweat electrolyte concentrations (mmol/L) were: sodium,49± 12; potassium,6.0± 1.3;chloride, 43 ± 10. Total sweat sodium loss of 99 ± 24 mmol corresponds to a salt (sodium chloride) loss of 5.8 ± 1.4 g. Mean urine osmolality measured on pre-training samples provided by the players was 666 ±311 mosmol/kg (n=21). These data indicate that sweat losses of water and solute in football players in training can be substantial but vary greatly between players even with the same exercise and environmental conditions. Voluntary fluid intake also shows wide inter-individual variability and is generally insufficient to match fluid losses.
Sandra luliano, Geraldine Naughton, Greg Collier and John Carlson
Thirty-two elite junior athletes in two age categories, older than or equal to IS years old (O15) (8 females and 9 males) and less than 15 years old (U15) (8 females and 7 males), performed a laboratory-based duathlon (run-ride-run). At the completion of the event, significant body mass losses were recorded for all groups. Compared with the other three groups, the O15 males lost body mass at a greater absolute rate (1.26 ±0.06 kg ⋅ hr−1 vs. a mean of 0.62 ±0.11 kg ⋅ hr−1 for the other three groups) and a greater relative rate (1.95 ± 0.10% BM ⋅ hr−1 vs. a mean of 1.23 ± 0.19 %BM ⋅ hr−1 for the other three groups) (p < .05). No differences were observed between groups for fluid consumption. Subjects consumed more fluid (p < .05) during the cycle phase and postevent than preevenl or during the run phases. Results indicated that the athletes' fluid intake practices were insufficient to maintain adequate hydration during the simulated event.