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Mark T. Suffolk

The sport of competitive bodybuilding is strongly associated with muscle dysmorphia, a body-image-related psychological disorder. This theoretical article draws on existing concepts, namely stereotyping, prejudice, and positive deviance in sport, to explicate the notion that competitive bodybuilding and body-image disturbance may be mistakenly conflated. The perspective offered here goes beyond the countercultural physique to argue that a negative social perception of competitive bodybuilders obscures the pragmatic necessity to develop a hypermesomorphic physique. Competitive bodybuilders (CBs) and athletes in mainstream competitive sport exhibit congruent psychobehavioral tendencies. In a competitive-sport context, behavior among CBs perceived as pathological may primarily represent a response to the ideological sporting ethic of “win at all costs,” not extreme body-image disturbance. Analyzing the psychobehavioral characteristics of CBs within a sporting rather than a pathological framework, allows for a contextual assessment of behaviors to then determine the clinical significance relative to the research population under investigation.

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Theodore Kent Kessinger, Bridget Melton, Theresa Miyashita and Greg Ryan

of nutritional supplements affecting muscular performance 12 wk or longer prior to the start of the study. Intervention Investigated RT groups performed 9 exercises targeting major muscle groups with equated volume. Exercises chosen were based on common inclusion in bodybuilding and strength-type RT

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher and Gavin Breslin

blood flow and up-regulated muscle protein synthesis ( Yu et al., 2014 ). As such, AAS are efficacious in increasing muscular size, performance, and aesthetics, and consequently, are prevalent in elite sport and professional bodybuilding (i.e., collective estimate of 13.4%; Sagoe, Modle, Andreassen

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Andrea S. Hartmann, Florian Steenbergen, Silja Vocks, Dirk Büsch and Manuel Waldorf

pathological symptoms in women. The findings showed that competitive female bodybuilding, i.e., a high drive for muscularity, is associated with symptoms of exercise dependence, dietary behavior, supplement use ( Hale, Diehl, Weaver, & Briggs, 2013 ), body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms

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Martin J. Turner, Stuart Carrington and Anthony Miller

), bodybuilding ( n  = 1), golf ( n  = 1), show jumping ( n  = 4), hockey ( n  = 5), mixed martial arts ( n  = 1), karate ( n  = 1), rugby ( n  = 7), shooting ( n  = 1), volleyball ( n  = 1), dance ( n  = 1), pool ( n  = 1), mountaineering ( n  = 1), karting ( n  = 1), and triathlon ( n  = 9). Participants were