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Breanna Drew and James Matthews

receiving increased international attention, there is a need to better understand student-athletes’ mental health and importantly, what factors may act as a buffer to mental ill-health in this particular cohort. Traditionally, it was believed that athletes were less likely to experience mental ill

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Pedro Rodrigues, Trampas TenBroek and Joseph Hamill

“Excessive” pronation is often implicated as a risk factor for anterior knee pain (AKP). The amount deemed excessive is typically calculated using the means and standard deviations reported in the literature. However, when using this method, few studies find an association between pronation and AKP. An alternative method of defining excessive pronation is to use the joints’ available range of motion (ROM). The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate pronation in the context of the joints’ ROM and (2) compare this method to traditional pronation variables in healthy and injured runners. Thirty-six runners (19 healthy, 17 AKP) had their passive pronation ROM measured using a custom-built device and a motion capture system. Dynamic pronation angles during running were captured and compared with the available ROM. In addition, traditional pronation variables were evaluated. No significant differences in traditional pronation variables were noted between healthy and injured runners. In contrast, injured runners used significantly more of their available ROM, maintaining a 4.21° eversion buffer, whereas healthy runners maintained a 7.25° buffer (P = .03, ES = 0.77). Defining excessive pronation in the context of the joints’ available ROM may be a better method of defining excessive pronation and distinguishing those at risk for injury.

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Damien Clement and Vanessa R. Shannon

Context:

According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes’ health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes’ psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted.

Objective:

To examine injured athletes’ perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support.

Design:

Descriptive.

Setting:

Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions.

Participants:

49 injured athletes.

Main Outcome Measures:

Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey.

Results:

Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support.

Conclusions:

Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete’s experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes’ rehabilitation and well-being.

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Zhongren Sun, Xiaoning Li, Zhiqiang Su, Ying Zhao, Li Zhang and Mingyuan Wu

Context:

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can be differentiated into neuronal cells and are used to treat spinal cord injury (SCI).

Objective:

This study investigated whether electroacupuncture enhances BMSC’s effects on SCI in rats.

Design:

The effects of transplantation of phosphate-buffered saline or BMSC, electroacupuncture, and a combination of BMSC transplantation and electroacupuncture on SCI were evaluated using a combined behavioral score (CBS). Expressions of neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and gliocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) of transplanted BMSC were detected using immunohistochemistry to assess the effect of electroacupuncture on differentiation of BMSC into neuronal cells.

Results:

The combination of BMSC transplantation and electroacupuncture significantly alleviated CBS in rats with SCI compared with the separate treatment of BMSC or electroacupuncture. In addition, electroacupuncture increased the NSE- and GFAP-positive transplanted BMSCs in spinal cord.

Conclusion:

Combined treatment showed a better effect, and the mechanisms may be partially caused by enhanced differentiation of BMSC into neuronal cells. Future studies are needed to confirm this.

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James R. Debenham, William I. Gibson, Mervyn J. Travers, Amity C. Campbell and Garry T. Allison

Context:

Eccentric exercises are increasingly being used to treat lower-limb musculoskeletal conditions such as Achilles tendinopathy. Despite widespread clinical application and documented efficacy, mechanisms underpinning clinical benefit remain unclear. Positive adaptations in motor performance are a potential mechanism.

Objective:

To investigate how an eccentric loading intervention influences measures of stretch-shortening-cycle (SSC) behavior during a hopping task.

Design:

Within-subjects repeated-measures observational study.

Setting:

University motion-analysis laboratory.

Participants:

Healthy adults.

Interventions:

A single intervention of 5 sets of 10 eccentric plantar-flexion contractions at 6 repetitions maximum using a commercial seated calf-raise machine.

Main Outcome Measures:

Lower-limb stiffness, sagittal-plane ankle kinematics, and temporal muscle activity of the agonist (soleus) and antagonist (tibialis anterior) muscles, measured during submaximal hopping on a custom-built sledge-jump system.

Results:

Eccentric loading altered ankle kinematics during submaximal hopping; peak angle shifted to a less dorsiflexed position by 2.9° and ankle angle precontact shifted by 4.4° (P < .001). Lower-limb stiffness increased from 5.9 to 6.8 N/m (P < .001), while surface EMG measures of soleus occurred 14–44% earlier (P < .001) after the loading intervention.

Conclusions:

These findings suggest that eccentric loading alters SSC behavior in a manner reflective of improved motor performance. Decreased ankle excursion, increased lower-limb stiffness, and alterations in motor control may represent a positive adaptive response to eccentric loading. These findings support the theory that mechanisms underpinning eccentric loading for tendinopathy may in part be due to improved “buffering” of the tendon by the neuromuscular system.

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Amanda L. Zaleski, Linda S. Pescatello, Kevin D. Ballard, Gregory A. Panza, William Adams, Yuri Hosokawa, Paul D. Thompson and Beth A. Taylor

Applications Compression socks are regularly touted as an inexpensive countermeasure to mitigate exercise-associated muscle damage. The present study does not support a role for compression socks worn during a marathon to buffer the expected rise of CK during or after a marathon event in recreational runners

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Rafael F. Escamilla, Jonathan S. Slowik, Alek Z. Diffendaffer and Glenn S. Fleisig

between groups, 10° intervals on each end of the 3-quarter arm slot range (ie, 40°–50° and 60°–70°) were allotted as buffer regions, and pitchers corresponding to these buffer regions were excluded from further analyses. The overhand group included 30 participants (20 right-handed), the 3-quarter group

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Lana M. Pfaff and Michael E. Cinelli

-Lajoie et al., 2005 ), as well as a buffer, which is not indicative of caution or error but rather is sensitive to one’s spatial requirements during walking ( Franchak et al., 2012 ). The protective zone is implemented to accommodate for medial–lateral (ML) stride-to-stride changes in body position to

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Mia Beck Lichtenstein, Claire Gudex, Kjeld Andersen, Anders Bo Bojesen and Uffe Jørgensen

. 2015 ; 24 ( 2 ): 189 – 197 . doi:10.1123/jsr.2013-0148 10.1123/jsr.2013-0148 25558960 28. Mitchell I , Evans L , Rees T , Hardy L . Stressors, social support, and tests of the buffering hypothesis: effects on psychological responses of injured athletes . Br J Health Psychol . 2013 ; 19

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Daniel Viggiani and Jack P. Callaghan

fatiguing exercise). Each 5-second ABC consisted of a 2-second ramp up and a 2-second maximal hold with a 1-second buffer for initiation and relaxation. A tethered cuff secured around the participant’s femoral condyles provided resistance during ABCs. This cuff remained affixed to participants during