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Melinda Jane Craike, Denis Coleman and Clare MacMahon

This study examined the role of leisure-time physical activity in reducing the impact of high life stress and time pressure on depression, a buffer effect, for mothers of infants. A direct association between leisure-time physical activity and depression, regardless of both sources of stress, was also tested. A sample of approximately 5,000 mothers of infant children completed questionnaires that measured demographic characteristics, frequency of participation in leisure-time physical activity, life stress, time pressure, and depression (depressive symptoms). Hierarchical multiple regression incorporating an interaction component to represent the buffering effect was used to analyze the data. Frequency of leisure-time physical activity was significantly associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms for both types of stress and acted as a buffer of the association between life stress and depressive symptoms, but did not buffer the influence of time pressure on depressive symptoms. These findings indicated that leisure-time physical activity assists in maintaining the mental health of mothers of infants; however, caution is needed when promoting physical activity for mothers who feel under time pressure.

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Jennifer L.J. Heaney, Douglas Carroll and Anna C. Phillips

The present study examined the relationship between habitual physical activity, life events stress, the diurnal rhythms of cortisol and DHEA, and the cortisol:dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) ratio in older adults. Thirty-six participants aged ≥ 65 reported their habitual physical activity, and indicated if a particular event happened to them in the past year (stress incidence) and how stressful they perceived the event to be (stress severity). Older adults with higher stress severity demonstrated a significantly higher cortisol:DHEA ratio. Individuals with higher stress incidence scores and who did not participate in aerobic exercise had a significantly higher cortisol:DHEA ratio and flatter DHEA diurnal rhythm compared with those who regularly participated in aerobic exercise. In conclusion, life events stress may have a negative impact on the cortisol:DHEA ratio in older adults. Under conditions of high stress exposure, exercise may protect older adults from an increased cortisol:DHEA ratio and flatter DHEA diurnal rhythm.

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Ana Queralt and Javier Molina-García

the human research ethics committee at the University of Valencia (H1380699879808). Measurements Built-Environment Attributes Built-environment attributes were generated using ArcGIS 10.2 software (ESRI Inc., Redlands, CA). Street-network buffers within 0.25, 0.5, and 1 km of the adolescents’ homes

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Levi Frehlich, Christine Friedenreich, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Jasper Schipperijn and Gavin R. McCormack

-reported neighborhood-based physical activity from the N-IPAQ. Further, we evaluated the extent to which estimates of concordance were sensitive to the size of objectively defined neighborhoods (including administrative boundary, 400-m, and 800-m radial buffers). Methods Study Design and Sample Recruitment Our study

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Marcus Colon, Andrew Hodgson, Eimear Donlon and James E.J. Murphy

exploring the effects of exercise on TL. To date, the results of these studies have been inconsistent ( LaRocca, Seals, & Pierce, 2010 ; Østhus et al., 2012 ; Shin, Lee, Song, & Jun, 2008 ; Woo, Tang, & Leung, 2008 ). However, the weight of evidence has begun to lean toward exercise having a buffering

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Chris Wagstaff, Rebecca Hings, Rebecca Larner and David Fletcher

, organizational, and personal) encountered by sport performers and found that the aforementioned psychological protective factors appear to protect athletes from the potentially negative effect of these stressors. Such findings suggest that psychological resilience buffers against potentially negative responses

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Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement

suggests that self-compassion may be an adaptive way of coping with stressful events by serving as a buffer against anxiety and a strategy for cognitive reframing. Within sports, empirical evidence supports the value of self-compassion for female athletes. Mosewich, Kowalski, Sabiston, Sedgwick, and Tracy

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Jacqueline Kerr, Greg Norman, Rachel Millstein, Marc A. Adams, Cindy Morgan, Robert D. Langer and Matthew Allison

Background:

Few studies of older adults have compared environmental correlates of walking and physical activity in women who may be more influenced by the environment. Environmental measures at different spatial levels have seldom been compared. Findings from previous studies are generally inconsistent.

Methods:

This study investigated the relationship between the built environment and physical activity in older women from the Women’s Health Initiative cohort in San Diego County (N = 5401). Built environment measures were created for 3 buffers around participants’ residential address. Linear regression analyses investigated the relationship between the built environment features and self-reported physical activity and walking.

Results:

Total walking was significantly positively associated with the walkability index (β = .050: half-mile buffer), recreation facility density (β = .036: 1-mile buffer), and distance to the coast (β = –.064; P-values < .05). Total physical activity was significantly negatively associated with distance to the coast and positively with recreation facility density (β = .036: 1-mile buffer; P < .05).

Conclusions:

Although effect sizes were small, we did find important relationships between walkability and walking in older adults, which supports recommendations for community design features to include age friendly elements. More intense physical activity may occur in recreational settings than neighborhood streets.

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Breanna Drew and James Matthews

receiving increased international attention, there is a need to better understand student-athletes’ mental health and importantly, what factors may act as a buffer to mental ill-health in this particular cohort. Traditionally, it was believed that athletes were less likely to experience mental ill

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Alejandra Jauregui, Erica Soltero, René Santos-Luna, Lucia Hernández-Barrera, Simon Barquera, Edtna Jáuregui, Lucie Lévesque, Juan López-Taylor, Luis Ortiz-Hernández and Rebecca Lee

Background:

Mexican children often use active commuting to school (ACS). In order to maintain high levels of ACS it is important to understand correlates of ACS in this population. However, most evidence comes from high-income countries (HICs). We examined multilevel correlates of ACS in children attending public schools in 3 Mexican cities.

Methods:

Information on 1191 children (grades 3 to 5) attending 26 schools was retrieved from questionnaires, neighborhood audits, and geographic information systems data. Multilevel logistic modeling was used to explore individual and environmental correlates of ACS at 400-m and 800-m buffers surrounding schools.

Results:

Individual positive correlates for ACS included age (6–8 years vs 9–11 years, odds ratio [OR] = 1.5; 6–8 years vs ≥12 years: OR = 2.1) and ≥ 6 adults at home (OR = 2.0). At the 400-m buffer, more ACS was associated with lower walkability (OR = 0.87), presence of posted speed limits (< 6% vs > 12%: OR = 0.36) and crossing aids (< 6% vs 6–20%: OR = 0.25; > 20%: OR = 0.26), as well as higher sidewalk availability (< 70% vs > 90%: OR = 4.5). Similar relationships with speed limits and crossing aids were observed at the 800m buffer.

Conclusions:

Findings contrast with those reported in HICs, underscoring the importance of considering the local context when developing strategies to promote ACS. Future studies are needed to replicate these relationships and investigate the longitudinal impact of improving active transportation infrastructure and policies.