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Stephen Macdonald and Justine Allen

& Hanrahan, 2004 ; Morgan, 2017 ; Vella & Perlman, 2014 ) have brought together multiple theories to understand the coach-created environment. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to adopt a multidimensional view to examine the coach-created talent development motivational climate in Canoe

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Myriam Paquette, François Bieuzen and François Billaut

In sprint canoe–kayak, Olympic individual events are 200 and 500 m (∼38 to ∼120 s) for women and 200 and 1000 m (∼34 to ∼220 s) for men. Using the accumulated oxygen deficit method, aerobic contribution in highly trained to international-level canoe–kayak athletes has been estimated to be ∼37%, ∼64

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Homero Gustavo Ferrari, Leonardo H.D. Messias, Ivan G.M. Reis, Claudio A. Gobatto, Filipe A.B. Sousa, Camila C.S. Serra and Fúlvia B. Manchado-Gobatto

Background:

Among other aspects, aerobic fitness is indispensable for performance in slalom canoe.

Purpose:

To propose the maximal-lactate steady-state (MLSS) and critical-force (CF) tests using a tethered canoe system as new strategies for aerobic evaluation in elite slalom kayakers. In addition, the relationship between the aerobic parameters from these tests and the kayakers’ performances was studied.

Methods:

Twelve male elite slalom kayakers from the Brazilian national team participated in this study. All tests were conducted using a tethered canoe system to obtain the force records. The CF test was applied on 4 d and analyzed by hyperbolic (CFhyper) and linear (CFlin) mathematical models. The MLSS intensity (MLSSint) was obtained by three 30-min continuous tests. The time of a simulated race was considered the performance index.

Results:

No difference (P < .05) between CFhyper (65.9 ± 1.6 N) and MLSSint (60.3 ± 2.5 N) was observed; however, CFlin (71.1 ± 1.7 N) was higher than MLSSint. An inverse and significant correlation was obtained between MLSSint and performance (r = –.67, P < .05).

Conclusion:

In summary, MLSS and CF tests on a tethered canoe system may be used for aerobic assessment of elite slalom kayakers. In addition, CFhyper may be used as an alternative low-cost and noninvasive method to estimate MLSSint, which is related with slalom kayakers’ performance.

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Andrew P. Hill, Howard K. Hall, Paul R. Appleton and Jemma J. Murray

Recent research suggests that validation-seeking and dimensions of perfectionism may be antecedents of athlete burnout. The present investigation examined whether validation and growth-seeking mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. One-hundred and fifty canoe polo and kayak slalom athletes recruited from the top two divisions in the UK completed measures of validation and growth-seeking (GOI), perfectionism (HMPS), and athlete burnout (ABQ). Analyses supported the mediating role of validation-seeking in the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. However, while bivariate correlations indicated that self-oriented perfectionism was positively related to both validation and growth-seeking, neither mediated the self-oriented perfectionism-burnout relationship. The findings suggest that validation-seeking may be an important psychological factor in the development of burnout for athletes exhibiting high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism. The relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and athlete burnout remains unclear because of its association with multiple motives and with socially prescribed perfectionism.

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Pablo M. García-Rovés, Serafina Fernández, Manuel Rodríguez, Javier Pérez-Landaluce and Angeles M. Patterson

The aim of this study is to accurately describe the eating pattern and nutritional status of international elite flatwater paddlers during 1 week of a high volume training camp. Ten male and 5 female international elite flatwater paddlers were recruited to take part in this study. These athletes were all members of the Spanish National Team. To assess the intake of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients, we used the weighed food intake method carried out by an observer. Biochemical and hematological profiles were also obtained. Average daily energy intake in male and female flatwater paddlers was 21.5 ± 2.3 and 16.5 ± 1.7 MJ, respectively. Furthermore, the male athletes showed average carbohydrate and protein intakes of 7.5 ±0.8 and 2.2 ±0.3 g ·kg·1 body weight - day ’, respectively. Similar intakes were found in female paddlers. carbohydrate 7.3 ± 1.1 and protein 2.0±0.3g·kg·1 body weight·day·1. Daily relative contribution to energy from fat was higher than recommended for sports practitioners or sedentary people (< 30 % of daily energy) in both genders (39.1 ± 2.1 and 40.2± 2.9% for men and women, respectively). Nevertheless, this diet with a high fat content (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) did not seem to influence the paddlers’ blood lipid profile that presented low values for total cholesterol and tryglicerides and high values for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol). Flatwater paddlers’ micronutrient intake was higher than Recommended Dietary Allowances/Dietary Reference Intake (RDA/DRIs), except for folate that is close to DRI values. Further studies are required in order to understand whether this level of fat intake could impair highly trained athletes’ performance and health.

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Andrew C. Sparkes and Sarah Partington

Narrative practice is an approach that enables researchers to alternately focus on the whats and hows of meaningful social interaction. The potential benefits of utilizing this approach in sport psychology are highlighted by focusing on the area of flow as an exemplar. It is suggested that the majority of work on flow has focused on the whats rather than on the equally important hows of this phenomenon. To illustrate the ways in which a concern for the hows of narrative practice can provide different insights into flow, data are provided from an interview-based study of a white water canoeing club. The findings suggest that describing flow is a relational performance, which is shaped by a number of narrative resources and auspices that operate differently according to gender.

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Darrell L. Bonetti and Will G. Hopkins

Purpose:

To estimate variability in performance time and smallest worthwhile changes for elite fat-water canoeists competing in 200-, 500- or 1000-m events at international regattas.

Methods:

The data came from A and B finals held at 7 to 13 regattas in 2003 to 2007. A linear mixed-model analysis of log-transformed official race times provided estimates of variability as coefficients of variation and included terms to account for changes in performance between years, venues, and A and B finals.

Results:

For men, the within-athlete variation in A finals was similar in canoeing and kayaking events, with the 200-m men’s events demonstrating probably less variability than the longer events (by an overall factor of 0.75, ×/÷1.33) that may reflect differences in pacing strategies. In contrast, the within-athlete variation for women kayakers in A finals of the 500-m event was only half that of the other distances (ratio 0.54, ×/÷1.29), possibly because of differences in competitive experience or depth of competition. Predictability of performance in A finals was moderate to very high (interclass correlations 0.40 to 0.89). Within-athlete variation in the B finals was generally greater than in the A finals for the three distances for men, but there was no clear pattern for women.

Conclusion:

The smallest worthwhile changes in performance time (0.3× within-athlete variability) in canoeing and kayaking are approx. 0.3% to 0.6%. Effects of 1% to 2% in power output would be required to achieve such changes in this generally highly predictable sport.

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Hyungil Harry Kwon, Do young Pyun and May Kim

The objective of the study was to see whether a teacher-coach exhibits different types of leadership behavior when s/he teaches a PE class and coaches a group of athletes. The participants in this study were 17–18 year old second-year preuniversity students from two local junior colleges in Singapore. A total of 159 students of mixed gender participated, including 80 PE students and 79 student-athletes from floorball, canoeing, and shooting teams. All of the 159 students were taught or coached by three (one male and two female) PE teachers, who performed the dual roles of a PE teacher-coach in the school. The data collection instrument used in this study was the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980) measuring five leadership behaviors. A multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that democratic decision making accounted for most of the differences between the PE students’ and student-athletes’ perceived leadership behavior of their teacher-coaches; the student-athletes perceived their coaches to provide training and instruction more than did the PE students. In addition to training and instruction, the student-athletes perceived more positive feedback given to them than did the PE students. For decision making style, students in PE class perceived more democratic decision making than athletes in school teams. The social support subscale did not show statistically significant group difference.

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Ben Schram, Wayne Hing and Mike Climstein

Purpose:

Stand-up paddle boarding (SUP) is a rapidly growing sport and recreational activity for which only anecdotal evidence exists on its proposed health, fitness, and injury-rehabilitation benefits. Participants: 10 internationally and nationally ranked elite SUP athletes.

Methods:

Participants were assessed for their maximal aerobic power on an ergometer in a laboratory and compared with other water-based athletes. Field-based assessments were subsequently performed using a portable gas-analysis system, and a correlation between the 2 measures was performed.

Results:

Maximal aerobic power (relative) was significantly higher (P = .037) when measured in the field with a portable gas-analysis system (45.48 ± 6.96 mL · kg−1 · min−1) than with laboratory-based metabolic-cart measurements (43.20 ± 6.67 mL · kg−1 · min−1). There was a strong, positive correlation (r = .907) between laboratory and field maximal aerobic power results. Significantly higher (P = .000) measures of SUP paddling speed were found in the field than with the laboratory ergometer (+42.39%). There were no significant differences in maximal heart rate between the laboratory and field settings (P = .576).

Conclusion:

The results demonstrate the maximal aerobic power representative of internationally and nationally ranked SUP athletes and show that SUP athletes can be assessed for maximal aerobic power in the laboratory with high correlation to field-based measures. The field-based portable gas-analysis unit has a tendency to consistently measure higher oxygen consumption. Elite SUP athletes display aerobic power outputs similar to those of other upper-limb-dominant elite water-based athletes (surfing, dragon-boat racing, and canoeing).

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Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli and Hans-Christer Holmberg

distance also appears in some upper-body-dominant modes such as canoeing and double-poling cross-country skiing, whereas the sex differences in kayaking are relatively constant at 12% to 13%. In the sprint events of these 2 sports (ie, 200-m kayaking and canoeing), the differences are 19% and 23