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Leslie J. Low, Mary J. Knudsen and Claudine Sherrill

In recent years, the number of individuals with dwarfism participating in sports and physical activities has increased. The Dwarf Athletic Association of America (DAAA) has grown from 30 athletes in 1985 to over 600 in 1994. This paper details the structural, intellectual, motor, orthopedic, and medical characteristics of six types of dwarfism (achondroplasia, hypochon-droplasia, cartilage-hair hypoplasia, diastrophic dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita) seen in individuals currently participating in eight DAAA-sanctioned sports. Implications and modifications for participation in physical activity, physical education, and sport are included.

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Dana M. Lis and Keith Baar

 al., 2017 ). Interestingly, dietary proline and HC are both incorporated into the skin of rats ( Matsuda et al., 2006 ); however, HC is preferentially incorporated into musculoskeletal tissues including muscle, cartilage, and bone ( Oesser et al., 1999 ). Furthermore, supplementing with HC has been shown to

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Keith Baar

.1100180403 McAlindon , T.E. , Nuite , M. , Krishnan , N. , Ruthazer , R. , Price , L.L. , Burstein , D. , . . . Flechsenhar , K. ( 2011 ). Change in knee osteoarthritis cartilage detected by delayed gadolinium enhanced magnetic resonance imaging following treatment with collagen hydrolysate: A

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

, consumption of 10 g of hydrolyzed collagen in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in athletes decreased knee pain from standing and walking ( Clark et al., 2008 ). The decrease in knee pain could be the result of an improvement in collagen synthesis of the cartilage within the knee since

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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

vitamin C/collagen: Recommended dose of gelatin is 5 to 15 g gelatin w/50 mg vitamin C ( Shaw et al., 2017 ). Collagen hydrolysate dose is about 10 g/day ( Clark et al., 2008 ; McAlindon et al., 2011 ). N/A N/A Increased collagen production, thickened cartilage, decreased knee pain. Gelatin and collagen

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Christopher Tack, Faye Shorthouse and Lindsy Kass

[“what is the effect of dietary supplements on musculoskeletal tissue (e.g., cartilage, tendon, muscle, ligament) healing compared to placebo or other control?”] and was used to formulate a search of Google Scholar and PubMed to evaluate the quality/volume of the existing literature. This search produced

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

10 g/day ( Clark et al., 2008 ; McAlindon et al., 2011 ) Increased collagen production; thickened cartilage; decreased joint pain Gelatin and collagen supplements appear to be low risk. Few data available ( Clark et al., 2008 ; McAlindon et al., 2011 ; Shaw et al., 2017 ) but increased collagen

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Rebekah D. Alcock, Gregory C. Shaw and Louise M. Burke

:// Oesser , S. , Schulze , C.H. , Zdzieblik , D. , & König , D. ( 2016 ). Efficacy of specific bioactive collagen peptides in the treatment of joint pain . Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 24 ( Suppl. 1 ), 189 . doi:10.1016/j.joca.2016.01.370 10.1016/j.joca.2016.01.370 Oesser , S

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Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs and Alan Vernec

participants with moderate-to-severe pain showed significant relief with the combined supplements ( Clegg et al., 2006 ). Phase 2 of the trial concluded that the supplements, either together or alone, appeared to fare no better than placebo in slowing loss of cartilage in osteoarthritis of the knee ( Sawitzke

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Mark Booth, Stephen Cobley and Rhonda Orr

Fracture Cartilage Hematoma Overuse Joint Abrasion Lacer. Resp. Blisters Other Total Gabbett and Jenkins 18 Noncontact NR Number 100.0 11.0 2.0 6.0 1.0 2.0 5.0 1.0 NR NR NR NR NR NR 47.0 175.0 Incidence 12.4 1.4 0.2 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.6 0.1 5.8 21.8 Contact Number 10.0 12.0 6.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 11.0 NR NR NR NR