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Sofia I. Lampropoulou and Alexander V. Nowicky

The way psychometric and neurophysiological measurements of fatigue are connected is not well understood. Thus, the time course of perceived effort changes due to fatigue, as well as the peripheral and central neurophysiological changes accompanying fatigue, were evaluated. Twelve healthy participants (35 ± 9 years old) undertook 10 min intermittent isometric fatiguing exercise of elbow flexors at 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Perceived effort ratings, using the 0–10 numeric rating scale (NRS), were recorded at midrange of MVC. Single pulse TMS of the left motor cortex and electrical stimulation over the biceps muscle was used for the assessment of voluntary activation and peripheral fatigue. The fatiguing exercise caused a 44% reduction in the MVC (p < .001) accompanied by an 18% nonsignificant reduction of the biceps MEP amplitude. The resting twitch force decreased (p < .001) while the superimposed twitches increased (p < .001) causing a decrease (19%) of the voluntary activation (p < .001). The perceived effort ratings increased by 1 point at 30%, by 2 points at 50% MVC respectively on the NRS (p < .001) and were accompanied by an increase in mean biceps EMG. A substantial role of the perceived effort in the voluntary motor control system was revealed.

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Joseph B. Lesnak, Dillon T. Anderson, Brooke E. Farmer, Dimitrios Katsavelis and Terry L. Grindstaff

within 3 to 5 trials 19 and providing 2 minutes of rest between sets. Although the average number of trials was 5.5, the range was between 3 and 9 trials. Higher numbers of attempts (>6) may not allow accurate determination of a 1RM 19 and may also contribute to central fatigue. This variability in

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Grant E. Norte, Jay N. Hertel, Susan A. Saliba, David R. Diduch and Joseph M. Hart

. Short-duration fatiguing protocols are believed to induce fatigue via peripheral mechanisms. However, fatigue in the presence of maximal effort tasks may be more reflective of central fatigue that can originate at spinal or supraspinal levels, 29 which could explain its relationship with CAR

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Andressa Busch Rocha Pereira and Renato Moraes

%, and 75% of the maximal voluntary isometric torque) and found that postural sway increased after the fatiguing exercises, but this increase was similar between the three intensities. Interestingly, the lowest intensity resulted in predominantly central fatigue, whereas the other two intensities