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Yu-Ting Tseng, Sanaz Khosravani, Arash Mahnan and Jürgen Konczak

This review addresses the role of exercise as an intervention for treating neurological disease. It focuses on three major neurological diseases that either present in acute or neurodegenerative forms—Parkinson’s disease, cerebellar ataxia, and cortical stroke. Each of the diseases affects primarily different brain structures, namely the basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. These structures are all known to be involved in motor control, and the dysfunction of each structure leads to distinct movement deficits. The review summarizes current knowledge on how exercise can aid rehabilitation or therapeutic efforts. In addition, it addresses the role of robotic devices in enhancing available therapies by reviewing how robot-aided therapies may promote the recovery for stroke survivors. It highlights recent scientific evidence in support of exercise as a treatment for brain dysfunction, but also outlines the still open challenges for unequivocally demonstrating the benefits of exercise.

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Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi and Mohamed Habib Elleuch

The present study aimed to investigate the effect of acute nocturnal melatonin (MEL) ingestion on sleep quality, cognitive performance, and postural balance in older adults. A total of 12 older men (58 ± 5.74 years) volunteered to participate in this study. The experimental protocol consisted in two testing sessions after nocturnal MEL (10 mg) or placebo ingestion the night before the tests. During each session, sleep quality tests, cognitive tests, and postural balance protocol were conducted. Static and dynamic postural control was assessed using a force platform. Most of the sleep parameters have been improved following nocturnal MEL ingestion without any effect on cognitive performance. Likewise, measurements related to the center of pressure (CoP) have been significantly decreased with MEL compared with placebo. In conclusion, postural control has been improved the morning following nocturnal MEL ingestion in older adults. This trend could be explained by the potential effect of MEL on sleep quality and cerebellum.

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Kelly Lynn Mulvey, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell and Ali Brian

). Further, there is a close link between the cerebellum (which is engaged in coordinated movement and motor activities) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (which is critical for executive functions and other complex cognitive function) ( Best, 2010 ; Diamond, 2000 ). Finally, there is also evidence

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Ming Fung Godfrey Lui, Hung Kay Daniel Chow, Wai Ming Kenny Wong and Wai Nam William Tsang

cerebellar receptors. It might interfere with sensory integration in the cerebellum, or it might increase the inhibition of vestibular nuclei, leading to decreased vestibulospinal activity ( Fraschini et al., 1999 ). Fraschini’s group has shown that additional exogenous melatonin impairs stance control by

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Xavier García-Massó, Isaac Estevan, Roberto Izquierdo-Herrera, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña and Luis-Millan Gonzalez

band in every cluster, indicating a limited necessity for visual and vestibular control; a high value in the MF band suggests a high degree of involvement of the cerebellum; and a medium value in the HF band, related to the proprioceptive system ( Paillard & Noé, 2015 ). Hence, according to the

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Tamara May, Nicole Rinehart, Lisa Barnett, Trina Hinkley, Jane McGillivray, Helen Skouteris, Delwyne Stephens and Debra Goldfinch

), 436 – 447 . PubMed ID: 20697417 doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.151 10.1038/ijo.2010.151 Nayate , A. , Bradshaw , J.L. , & Rinehart , N.J. ( 2005 ). Autism and Asperger’s disorder: Are they movement disorders involving the cerebellum and/or basal ganglia? Brain Research Bulletin, 67 ( 4 ), 327 – 334

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Nicholas E. Fears and Jeffrey J. Lockman

. , Ecker , C. , . . . Zwiers , M.P. ( 2019 ). Altered connectivity between cerebellum, visual, and sensory-motor networks in autism spectrum disorder: Results from the EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project . Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 4 ( 3 ), 260 – 270

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Priscila Tamplain, E. Kipling Webster, Ali Brian and Nadia C. Valentini

development and cognitive development and of the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex . Child Development, 71 ( 1 ), 44 – 56 . PubMed ID: 10836557 doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00117 Estevan , I. , Molina-Garcia , J. , Bowe , S.J. , Alvarez , O. , Castillo , I. , & Barnett , L. ( 2018 ). Who can best

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

decisions such as changes in paddling direction and bimanual coordinated movement based on the situation. Neural processing through the cerebellum and basal ganglia is required to coordinate and perform the desired movements, and integration in the association area of the brain is required for changing the

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

). That is, a model so-called “hemispheric asymmetry reduction in older adults (HAROLD)” was used to describe the less asymmetry of brain activity in older adults compared with young adults. Noble et al. ( 2011 ) also found that older adults exhibit higher activation in the cerebellum and premotor cortex