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Yu-Ting Tseng, Sanaz Khosravani, Arash Mahnan and Jürgen Konczak

This review addresses the role of exercise as an intervention for treating neurological disease. It focuses on three major neurological diseases that either present in acute or neurodegenerative forms—Parkinson’s disease, cerebellar ataxia, and cortical stroke. Each of the diseases affects primarily different brain structures, namely the basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. These structures are all known to be involved in motor control, and the dysfunction of each structure leads to distinct movement deficits. The review summarizes current knowledge on how exercise can aid rehabilitation or therapeutic efforts. In addition, it addresses the role of robotic devices in enhancing available therapies by reviewing how robot-aided therapies may promote the recovery for stroke survivors. It highlights recent scientific evidence in support of exercise as a treatment for brain dysfunction, but also outlines the still open challenges for unequivocally demonstrating the benefits of exercise.

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Howard N. Zelaznik

: Evidence for a common timing mechanism . Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21 , 3 – 18 . Ivry , R.B. , Keele , S.W. , & Diener , H.C. ( 1988 ). Dissociation of the lateral and medial cerebellum in movement timing and movement execution . Experimental Brain

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Bradley D. Hatfield

positron emission tomography (PET) during six successive 1-min periods. Decreases in brain activity were observed in the right premotor and posterior parietal cortex as well as the left cerebellum after practice, while increases were observed in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortex

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Ryota Nishiyori and Beverly D. Ulrich

. MRI data document that the infant cerebrum volume increases by 101% and the cerebellum by 240% during the first year of life. Results of this nature provide description but not function ( Knickmeyer et al., 2008 ). To acquire images with MRI, participants must remain stationary for an extended period

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Cheryl M. Glazebrook

, including the premotor and motor cortex, parietal cortex (apraxia), and cerebellum ( Carlsen, Maslovat, & Franks, 2012 ; Doyon et al., 2009 ; Franklin & Wolpert, 2011 ; Grosprⓔtre, Lebon, Papaxanthis, & Martin, 2016 ; Hornix, 2018 ; Pruszynski et al., 2011 ). A wide range of patient studies, as well as

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Mark L. Latash

). Equifinality and its violations in a redundant system: Multi-finger accurate force production . Journal of Neurophysiology, 110 , 1965 – 1973 . PubMed doi:10.1152/jn.00461.2013 10.1152/jn.00461.2013 Wolpert , D.M. , Miall , R.C. , & Kawato , M. ( 1998 ). Internal models in the cerebellum . Trends

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Sandra J. Shultz and Randy J. Schmitz

cerebellum, than controls ( Grooms et al., 2017 ). These studies collectively suggest an increased dependence on visual feedback during simple knee exercises and a shift away from a sensorimotor strategy ( Grooms, Page, & Onate, 2015 ). Given that neuromuscular training exercises often include increased

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David I. Anderson

relation found between IQ and the volume of the cerebellum and caudate, two subcortical brain structures once thought to be exclusively involved in motor functions. The volume of the putamen, another subcortical structure once thought to be exclusively involved in motor function, was also significantly and