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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

Contemporary circus is a performance art form in which human performers use circus skills to tell a story ( Leroux, 2014 ). In terms of physical skills and demands, there are similarities between contemporary circus disciplines and sports such as gymnastics. Recognizing these similarities, various

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Niamh M. Murphy and Adrian Bauman

Background:

Large-scale, one-off sporting or physical activity (PA) events are often thought to impact population PA levels. This article reviews the evidence and explores the nature of the effect.

Methods:

A search of the published and grey literature was conducted to July 2005 using relevant databases, web sources, and personal contacts. Impacts are described at the individual, societal and community, and environmental levels.

Results:

Few quality evaluations have been conducted. While mass sporting events appear to influence PA-related infrastructure, there is scant evidence of impact on individual participation at the population level. There is some evidence that events promoting active transport can positively affect PA.

Conclusions:

The public health potential of major sporting and PA events is often cited, but evidence for public health benefit is lacking. An evaluation framework is proposed.

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Kate Riegle van West, Cathy Stinear and Ralph Buck

and lower body, and (c) Tai Chi Qigong Shibashi: movements from the Yang style Tai Chi Chuan, with an emphasis on synchronizing 18 movements with proper breathing techniques. Poi lessons were taught by a former circus artist with over a decade of experience practicing and teaching poi. Each lesson

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Cindy Lynn Salazar-Collier, Belinda Reininger, Rose Gowen, Arturo Rodriguez and Anna Wilkinson

; 40 : 454 – 461 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.016 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.12.016 25. Murphy NM , Bauman A . Mass sporting and physical activity events—are they “bread and circuses” or public health interventions to increase population levels of physical activity? J Phys Act Health

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Brian E. Pruegger

only highlights the architectural and historical prestige of Montreal but also endeavors to illuminate its global identity as the true “Hockeytown.” In Chapter 7, Alain Deneault incorporates “Bread and Circuses,” a term derived from satirist Roman writer Juvenal and takes an opposite stance to the

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Kelsey Slater

sport and economics, including Circus Maximus: The Economic Gamble Behind Hosting the Olympics and the World Cup . He has consulted on Olympic-bid projects, most notably the 2012 New York City bid, and he also provided a critical examination of the 2024 Boston bid, which was ultimately withdrawn after

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Bradley Donohue, Marina Galante, Julia Maietta, Bern Lee, Nina Paul, Joanne E. Perry, Arianna Corey and Daniel N. Allen

measure of mental health Global Severity Index of Symptom Checklist-90-revised, GSI; Derogatis, 1994 ). A slightly modified version of this scale has been shown to assist mental health screening in circus artists ( Donohue, Gavrilova, Galante, Gavrilova et al., 2018 ). It was hypothesized that a

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Robert J. Lake

guests and debenture holders, these days typically have a circus-like atmosphere. 14. As Lake ( 2017a ) recently highlighted, this sense of Englishness obscures what is purportedly British—namely, the LTA itself, not to mention the wholesale support of Scotsman Andy Murray—alongside presenting

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school environment include standing easels/desks, timers, access to novel sport/circus equipment in the classroom, and playground line markings. Adaptations to the training and material delivery have been made based on extensive piloting. Real-world implementation and effectiveness of the Transform