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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns and Fergal Jones

severity of impairment that athletes may present with. However, to develop a more stratified approach, similar to other impairment groups, research must be undertaken, upon which a more sensitive classification system could be based. It is the purpose of this paper to explore how such a system could be

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Tiago M. Barbosa, Jorge E. Morais, Mário J. Costa, José Goncalves, Daniel A. Marinho and António J. Silva

The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CDa). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CDa). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F = 53.680; P < .001), followed by the dv (F = 28.506; P < .001), CDa (F = 21.025; P < .001), S (F = 6.297; P < .01) and v (F = 5.375; P = .01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CDa (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers’ profiles.

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Kirsti Van Dornick and Nancy L.I. Spencer

based on their bodies’ degree of function to determine who they will compete with and against ( International Paralympic Committee [IPC], 2015a , 2015b ; Steadward & Peterson, 1997 ). Classification provides a structure for competition in parasport ( IPC, 2015a ; Tweedy, Beckman, & Connick, 2014

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Yves C. Vanlandewijck, Christina Evaggelinou, Daniel D. Daly, Siska Van Houtte, Joeri Verellen, Vanessa Aspeslagh, Robby Hendrickx, Tine Piessens and Bjorn Zwakhoven

The player classification system in wheelchair basketball (composed of four classes) is based on an analysis of players’ functional resources through game observation and field-testing. This study examines if the classes are in the correct proportion relative to each other. During the Wheelchair Basketball World Championships in Sydney 1998, 12 teams were videotaped for three 40-min games. Eighty-eight male players were retained for a detailed performance analysis by means of the Comprehensive Basketball Grading System (CBGS). Although a slight underestimation of the functional potential of Class II and III players was noted, it was concluded that the player classification system in wheelchair basketball proportionally represents the functional potential of the players.

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Michelle A. Sandrey

where instability tests would be valued 2 , 10 , 11 : lumbar spondylolisthesis 10 and the stabilization classification group. 1 , 2 , 11 , 12 In the stabilization classification group, lumbar segmental instability may be apparent along with other clinical signs such as aberrant movement, Gower’s sign

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Kenneth J. Richter, Carol Adams-Mushett, Michael S. Ferrara and B. Cairbre McCann

Classification is intended to provide fair competition for athletes. Each disability group has developed different methods and techniques of classification to ensure fair competition. However, the 1992 Paralympics will use integrated classification for swimmers from the International Sports Organization for the Disabled (ISOD), the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Sports Federation (ISMWSF), and the Cerebral Palsy International Sports and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA). The integrated swimming classification is said to be based on the research of Counsilman. The developers of the integrated swimming classification system have assigned point values for body parts involved in swimming propulsion. Counsilman (1977) refutes the assignment of points to swimming propulsion since it is unscientific and based on subjective evaluation. Further, the integrated swimming classification has yet to undergo extensive field testing to determine its reliability and validity. Additionally there are physiological, sports technical, and statistical problems with the integrated system.

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Rodrigo Rodrigues Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro and Frederico Ribeiro Neto

One form of spinal cord injury (SCI) classification is to stratify into 2 groups: tetraplegia (TP), which involves injuries between the cervical vertebrae (C6–C8), and paraplegia, between the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral vertebrae (T1–L2). 1 , 2 This division is by the American Spinal Injury

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Gale M. Gehlsen and Joan Karpuk

This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the National Wheelchair Athletic Association (NWAA) classification system in swimming events. The NWAA records of freestyle, butterfly, and backstroke in nine classifications of both male and female athletes were used (N=1,256). Each athlete’s speed was calculated from the reported time and distance. There was a significant difference in classification for all events except the paraplegic 50- and 100-m backstroke events. Post hoc data analyses within classification for the 50- and 100-m freestyle events indicated significant differences among all paraplegic classifications. Post hoc data analyses within classifications for the 50-m butterfly event indicated significant differences among all paraplegic classes except Class V and Class VI athletes. Tetraplegic within classification post hoc data analyses indicated significant differences between 1A and both Classes 1B and 1C. Gender differences were statistically indicated for all events. The logic of the medical classification system of the NWAA cannot be totally supported by these data. However, the results do not offer clear direction for any combination of classes.

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Walter E. Davis and Terry L. Rizzo

The detrimental effects of labeling persons as disabled is well known to special educators, many of whom have advocated doing away with labels altogether. However, as a fundamental of science, classification is extremely important. The problem may not be the labeling process per se but one of societal attitudes. Labels are both a product and provocation of attitudes. A review of the current classification systems pinpoints eight characteristics that are problematic in classifying motor disorders. Gibson’s (1977) theory of affordance offers one way of providing a more accurate and useful labeling system, and at the same time addressing, in part, the negative attitude problem. In an affordance approach, the label applies to the behavior as a product of the person/environment system rather than to the person alone, which is the traditional approach. The new classification system offered here, although not complete, differs from the traditional systems in several ways and is seen as useful to researchers and educators alike.

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Marcie Harris-Hayes, Shirley A. Sahrmann and Linda R. Van Dillen


Hip function has been proposed to be related to low back pain (LBP) because of the anatomical proximity of the hip and lumbopelvic region. To date, findings have been inconclusive, possibly because the samples studied were heterogeneous. Subgrouping samples based on characteristics such as activity demand, LBP classification, and sex might clarify research findings.


To describe and summarize studies that examine 3 factors proposed to be important to the study of the hip–LBP relationship.


Review of cross-sectional studies.


Academic healthcare center and research laboratory.


3 groups: athletes with a history of LBP who regularly participate in rotation-related sports, athletes without a history of LBP who are active but do not regularly participate in rotation-related sports, and athletes without a history of LBP who participate in rotation-related sports.

Main Outcome:

Hip range of motion and hip–lumbopelvic region coordination.


Hip range of motion was measured with an inclinometer. Coordination was examined based on kinematics obtained with a 3-dimensional motion-capture system.


Differences among groups were found based on activity demand, LBP classification, and sex.


When assessing athletes with and without LBP, characteristics such as activity demand, LBP classification, and sex should be considered.