This study examined the effects of video feedback on the nonverbal behavior of handball coaches, and athletes’ and coaches’ anxieties and perceptions. One intervention group (49 participants) and one control group (63 participants) completed the Coaching Behavior Assessment System, Coaching Behavior Questionnaire, and Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 on two separate occasions, with 7 weeks of elapsed time between each administration. Coaches in the intervention condition received video feedback and a frequency table with a comparison of their personal answers and their team’s answers on the CB AS. Repeated-measures ANOVAs showed that over time, athletes in the intervention group reported significantly less anxiety and perceived their coaches significantly more positively compared with athletes in the nonintervention condition. Over time, coaches in the intervention group perceived themselves significantly more positively than coaches in the nonintervention condition. Compared with field athletes, goalkeepers were significantly more anxious and perceived their coaches less positively. It is concluded that an intervention using video feedback might have positive effects on anxiety and coach perception and that field athletes and goalkeepers possess different profiles.
Mathieu Simon Paul Meeûs, Sidónio Serpa and Bert De Cuyper
Sean P. Cumming, Ronald E. Smith and Frank L. Smoll
For more than two decades, the behavioral categories of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) and the Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS) have been used by a wide range of researchers to measure coaching behaviors, yet little is known about how the behavioral categories in the two models relate statistically to one another. Male and female athletes on 63 high school teams (N = 645) completed the LSS and the athlete-perception version of the CBAS (CBAS-PBS) following the sport season, and they evaluated their coaches. Several of Chelladurai’s (1993) hypotheses regarding relations among behavioral categories of the two models were strongly supported. However, many significant and overlapping correlations between LSS subscales and CBAS-PBS behavioral categories cast doubt upon the specificity of relations between the two instruments. The LSS and the CBAS-PBS accounted for similar and notable amounts of variance in athletes’ liking for their coach and evaluations of their knowledge and teaching ability.
Nikos Zourbanos, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Nikos Tsiakaras, Stiliani Chroni and Yannis Theodorakis
The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship between coaching behavior and athletes’ inherent self-talk (ST). Three studies were conducted. The first study tested the construct validity of the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) in the Greek language, and provided support for its original factor structure. The second study examined the relationships between coaching behavior and athletes’ ST in field, with two different samples. The results showed that supportive coaching behavior was positively related to positive ST (in one sample) and negatively related to negative ST (in both samples), whereas negative coaching behavior was negatively related to positive ST (in one sample) and positively related to negative ST (in both samples). Finally, the third study examined the relationships experimentally, to produce evidence regarding the direction of causality. The results showed that variations in coaching behavior affected participants’ ST. Overall, the results of the present investigation provided considerable evidence regarding the links between coaching behavior and athletes’ ST and suggested that coaches may have an impact on athletes’ thoughts.
Louise Davis and Sophia Jowett
The present preliminary study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new sport-specific self-report instrument designed to assess athletes’ and coaches’ attachment styles. The development and initial validation comprised three main phases. In Phase 1, a pool of items was generated based on pre-existing self-report attachment instruments, modified to reflect a coach and an athlete’s style of attachment. In Phase 2, the content validity of the items was assessed by a panel of experts. A final scale was developed and administered to 405 coaches and 298 athletes (N = 703 participants). In Phase 3, confirmatory factor analysis of the obtained data was conducted to determine the final items of the Coach-Athlete Attachment Scale (CAAS). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable goodness of ft indexes for a 3-first order factor model as well as a 2-first order factor model for both the athlete and the coach data, respectively. A secure attachment style positively predicted relationship satisfaction, while an insecure attachment style was a negative predictor of relationship satisfaction. The CAAS revealed initial psychometric properties of content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as reliability.
Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier
Existing research has suggested that coaches promote athlete success both within and outside of sport through their interpersonal behaviors and their coaching styles (e.g., Mageau & Vallerand, 2003 ). To date, most of this research has been athlete-focused and has not taken into consideration how
Zoë A. Poucher, Katherine A. Tamminen and Gretchen Kerr
of athletes’ support providers, as their interactions may have consequences for their own and the athletes’ experiences in sport. Previous research has indicated that elite Canadian athletes consider coaches, family, friends, teammates, retired teammates, and sport administrators to be important
George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon
Though sport participation is widely available to women, when it comes to coaching positions, the data tell a different story. Consider the following: in the United States (US) during the 2016–17 academic year, girls and women represented 42% of all interscholastic athletes ( 2016-17 High School
Matea Wasend and Nicole M. LaVoi
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) intercollegiate teams, compared to about 16,000 in 1970 ( Acosta & Carpenter, 2014 ). As Schull ( 2017 ) notes, increased participation rates would seem to bode well for gender equity in sport coaching. However, despite the increasing athletic capital and
Justine B. Allen and Colleen Reid
There has been much research and discussion on the underrepresentation of women in coaching and particularly in performance environments such as collegiate, national, and international sport. Research documenting the numbers of women and men coaching has demonstrated that this underrepresentation
Sarah Lawrason, Jennifer Turnnidge, Luc J. Martin and Jean Côté
Coaches play a critical role in fostering positive youth sport experiences through their interactions with athletes ( Côté & Gilbert, 2009 ). Indeed, effective coaches consistently apply three types of knowledge and behavior: professional (i.e., sport-specific physical, technical, and tactical