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Evie Oregon, Lauren McCoy, Lacee’ Carmon-Johnson and Angel Brown-Reveles

possibility of developing a salary cap for college coaching salaries. This particular idea allows students to propose positions to address the issue while learning more about the legal implications of their actions. The case study is divided into four parts. Part I includes teaching notes for instructors on

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Anthony Koschmann

Coaches play an instrumental role in helping their players to play to the best of their abilities as a team to win. Professional hockey coaches, for instance, decide which players will play on which lines, strategizing the matchups against opposing players, and create special team assignments

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Shaina M. Dabbs, Jeffrey A. Graham and Marlene A. Dixon

coaches. Workforce and Career Trends: A Focus on Midcareer Experiences Three notable trends contribute to the complexity of managing today’s workforce. First, the workforce overall is aging. Since 2001, the teenage workforce decreased by 33%, whereas employees aged 55 years and older increased by 40

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Jeffrey A. Graham and Marlene A. Dixon

, suggesting that if individuals are not physically and emotionally invested in the organization, they are in some way letting the “family” down. Furthermore, there is little job security for coaches in sport, as contracts can and often are terminated mid- or postseason. These pressures produce a culture that

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Bram Constandt, Els De Waegeneer and Annick Willem

soccer, our study focuses on the influence of perceived coach ethical leadership on player-perceived ethical behavior in nonprofessional soccer clubs. The many existing illustrations of unethical coach behavior (e.g., sexual abuse) contradict with the research findings that coaches are the most critical

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Joseph P. Mazer, Katie Barnes, Alexia Grevious and Caroline Boger

Team sports have become a vital informal learning setting in which athletes are taught, motivated, and mentored by their coaches. This experimental study examined the effects of coach verbal aggression on athlete motivation and perceptions of coach credibility. Results revealed that athletes exposed to a verbally aggressive coach were significantly less motivated and perceived the coach as less credible than athletes who were exposed to a coach who used an affirming style. With respect to credibility, athletes perceived a verbally aggressive coach as significantly less competent, trustworthy, and caring than a coach who used an affirming style. Implications and areas for future research are discussed. Case-study questions are presented for discussion by scholars and students.

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Donna L. Pastore, Bernie Goldfine and Harold Riemer

The present study examined the perceptions of coaches to identify and assess the important areas in which athletic administrators may provide support. A total of 173 NCAA college coaches responded to a questionnaire consisting of 46 items that elicited the importance attached to each item. Principal component analysis of the importance data set yielded six components: Game Management, Decision Making, Nondiscriminatory Work Environment, Job Benefits/Salary, Program Support, and Evaluation. Multivariate analyses of variance (MÁNOVA) was used to analyze the set of dependent variables (Importance of Items) with the independent variables (Gender and Division). The MÁNOVA showed a significant relationship for the main effects of gender and division for the importance of the components. Univariate analyses indicated a significant difference between males and females on the Decision Making component. Male coaches rated Decision Making more important than female coaches. Univariate analyses further revealed significant differences for the components Program Support and Nondiscriminatory Work Environment by division. Tukey's post-hoc analyses showed that Division III coaches rated Program Support significantly higher than those in Division I and II. No significant difference was found between Division I and II coaches. Regarding Nondiscriminatory Work Environment, a significant difference was found between Division I and III coaches in that Division III coaches rated this component significantly higher than their counterparts in Division I.

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Donna L. Pastore

The present study examined the factors that influence male and female 2-year college coaches of women's teams to select and possibly leave a career in coaching. Of 200 coaches from five athletic conferences in the Mid-Atlantic/New England region, 90 (45%) participated in the study. Two separate MANOVAs were used to analyze each of the two sets of dependent variables (reasons for selecting and reasons for leaving coaching) with the independent variable (gender). Univariate analyses showed that females valued “helping female athletes reach their athletic potential” as a reason for being a coach significantly more than males did. Female coaches also rated significantly higher than males the factors “burden of administrative duties” and “increased intensity in recruiting student-athletes” as reasons to leave the coaching profession.

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John L. Fizel and Michael D’itri

Data envelopment analysis, a linear programming technique, is used to estimate an objective measure of coaching efficiency. This method is applied using the performance records of 147 Division I college basketball teams from 1984 through 1991. The results indicate a wide dispersion in coaching efficiency, with the typical coach being very inefficient relative to the best coaches in the sample. It is also shown that additional experience apparently has no effect on coaching ability. Finally, coaching efficiency estimates provide a much different assessment of coaching performance than does a coach's winning percentage. These results imply that if coaching retention is based on winning percentage rather than coaching efficiency, excellent coaches will be ignored in hiring decisions and inappropriately dismissed in firing decisions if coaching retention is based on winning percentages rather than coaching efficiency.

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Michael Roach

Sports franchises often value prior head coaching experience as they evaluate head coaching candidates. This paper empirically tests whether prior head coaching experience affects team performance in the National Football League. Accounting for individual coach effects and other relevant factors, I find that team performance is significantly worse beyond a given coach’s initial head coaching spell. These results hold for a variety of outcome measures. While coaches with the lowest levels of success in their initial head coaching spell have the most pronounced negative experience effects, significant negative effects are estimated for coaches at all levels of initial success. One explanation for these results is that human capital acquired through head coaching experience is to a large extent firm specific, so while learning does occur within a given head coaching job, it does not carry over to future coaching spells. This can lead to an erosion of any relative human capital advantage.