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Jeremy J. Foreman, Joshua S. Bendickson and Birton J. Cowden

outcomes as a unit. For example, changes in hiring decisions are now required based on the Rooney Rule, which “requires National Football League teams to interview at least one minority candidate when hiring a head coach” ( Solow, Solow, & Walker, 2011 , p. 332). Other scholars studied NFL policies

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George B. Cunningham, Na Young Ahn, Arden J. Anderson and Marlene A. Dixon

Though sport participation is widely available to women, when it comes to coaching positions, the data tell a different story. Consider the following: in the United States (US) during the 2016–17 academic year, girls and women represented 42% of all interscholastic athletes ( 2016-17 High School

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Justine B. Allen and Colleen Reid

There has been much research and discussion on the underrepresentation of women in coaching and particularly in performance environments such as collegiate, national, and international sport. Research documenting the numbers of women and men coaching has demonstrated that this underrepresentation

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Matea Wasend and Nicole M. LaVoi

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) intercollegiate teams, compared to about 16,000 in 1970 ( Acosta & Carpenter, 2014 ). As Schull ( 2017 ) notes, increased participation rates would seem to bode well for gender equity in sport coaching. However, despite the increasing athletic capital and

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Jenessa Banwell, Gretchen Kerr and Ashley Stirling

Despite the growing participation rates of girls and women in sport ( Physical Activity Monitor Survey, 2010 ), female coaches remain consistently underrepresented at nearly all levels of sport. Women currently represent no more than 25% of all coaches in Canadian sport ( Government of Canada, 2015

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Alixandra N. Krahn

Despite a range of initiatives aimed at improving the numbers and experiences of women in sport coaching, Canadian women continue to have limited opportunities to get into and to stay in sport coaching ( CSPS, 2017 ; Demers & Kerr, 2018 ). The highest levels of coaching within Canada include

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Leslie K. Larsen and Christopher J. Clayton

Over the past four decades, the percentage of US women working in many professions has increased significantly ( LaVoi, 2016a ). However, this trend does not hold true for women coaching in sport. Prior to the passing of Title IX in 1972, over 90% of collegiate women’s sports were coached by women

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Vicki D. Schull and Lisa A. Kihl

more deeply embedded and persistent than any other arena ( Hovden, 2000 , 2010 ). The masculine context of sport teamed with dominant masculine leadership ideologies often results in gendered logic and beliefs that men are naturally better sport leaders and coaches, and recent research found the

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Erin Kraft, Diane M. Culver and Cari Din

, & Culver, 2019 ). There has been a notable shortage in female head coaches in the United States ( Machida-Kosuaga, Schaubroek, Gould, Ewing, & Feltz, 2017 ) and a general underrepresentation of women in sport leadership positions on a global scale ( LaVoi, 2016 ). Moreover, the number of women securing

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Susan M. Molstad

Male (N=121) and female (N=135) high school girls’ basketball coaches responded to three forced-choice questions related to gender and role modeling. Both genders said they preferred coaching girls to boys. Male coaches thought female athletes preferred a male coach, female coaches thought they preferred a female coach. Coaches of each gender perceived themselves as equal or better role models than their counterparts. Coaches were then asked to rank order the importance of six coaching qualities previously identified as either expressive or instrumental. First they ranked the qualities in importance as they perceived them, then in the order they thought players would rank them. Coaches differed significantly by gender on the rankings of the qualities, as well as their perceptions of how athletes might rank the same qualities. Implications for modeling and young female athletes are discussed in relation to gender differences in these perceptions.