The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes’ cognitive and somatic performance anxiety over the course of a basketball season. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that the athletes in the intervention condition perceived their coaches as being more mastery-involving on the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports when compared to athletes in an untreated control condition. Relative to athletes who played for untrained coaches, those who played for the trained coaches exhibited decreases on all subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 and on total anxiety score from preseason to late season. Control group athletes reported increases in anxiety over the season. The intervention had equally positive effects on boys and girls teams.
Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll and Sean P. Cumming
Frank L. Smoll, Ronald E. Smith and Sean P. Cumming
Mastery-oriented motivational climates and achievement goal orientations have been associated with a range of salutary and clinically relevant outcomes in both educational and sport research. In view of this, an intervention was developed for youth sport coaches designed to promote a mastery motivational climate, and a field experiment was conducted to assess its effects on changes in athletes’ achievement goal orientations over the course of a sport season. The experimental group was comprised of 155 boys and girls, who played for 20 basketball coaches; 70 youngsters played for 17 control group coaches. The coach intervention resulted in higher Mastery-climate scores and lower Ego-climate scores compared with the control condition, and athletes who played for the trained coaches exhibited significant increases in Mastery goal orientation scores and significant decreases in Ego-orientation scores across the season, whereas control group participants did not. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
Joëlle Carpentier and Geneviève A. Mageau
Change-oriented feedback (COF) quality is predictive of between-athletes differences in their sport experience (Carpentier & Mageau, 2013). This study extends these findings by investigating how training-to-training variations in COF quality influence athletes’ training experience (within-athlete differences) while controlling for the impact of promotion-oriented feedback (POF). In total, 49 athletes completed a diary after 15 consecutive training sessions to assess COF and POF received during training, as well as situational outcomes. Multivariate multilevel analyses showed that, when controlling for covariates, COF quality during a specific training session is positively linked to athletes’ autonomous motivation, self-confidence and satisfaction of their psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness during the same session. In contrast, COF quantity is negatively linked to athletes’ need for competence. POF quality is a significant positive predictor of athletes’ self-confidence and needs for autonomy and competence. Contributions to the feedback and SDT literature, and for coaches’ training, are discussed.
Renato Barroso, Ronaldo K. Cardoso, Everton Crivoi Carmo and Valmor Tricoli
Session rating of perceived exertion (SRPE) is a practical method to assess internal training load to provide appropriate stimuli. However, coaches and athletes might rate training sessions differently, which can impair performance development. In addition, SRPE might be influenced by athletes’ training experience. The authors studied 160 swimmers of different age groups and different competitive swimming experience and 9 coaches. SRPE was indicated by the swimmers 30 min after the end of a training session and before the training session by the coaches. Training-session intensities were classified into easy (SRPE <3), moderate (SRPE 3–5), and difficult (SRPE >5), based on coaches’ perception. We observed that the correlation between coaches’ and athletes’ SRPE increased with increased age and competitive swimming experience, r = .31 for the 11- to 12-y-old group (P < .001), r = .51 for the 13- to 14-y-old group (P < .001), and r = .74 for the 15- to 16-y-old group (P < .001). In addition, younger swimmers (11–12 y, P < .01; 13–14 y, P < .01) rated training intensity differently from coaches in all 3 categories (easy, moderate, and difficult), while the older group rated differently in only 1 category (difficult, P < .01). These findings suggest that the more experienced swimmers are, the more accurate their SRPE is.
Regina Belski, Alex Donaldson, Kiera Staley, Anne Skiadopoulos, Erica Randle, Paul O’Halloran, Pam Kappelides, Steve Teakel, Sonya Stanley and Matthew Nicholson
delivered independent of other coach training. These are important strengths of the intervention used in this study as they address convenience and time, two significant barriers to participation in ongoing education previously identified by youth volunteer coaches ( Vargas-Tonsing, 2007 ). Self-efficacy is
Laura St. Germain, Amanda M. Rymal and David J. Hancock
”), interpersonal knowledge (i.e., communication skills), and intrapersonal knowledge (i.e., the ability for self-reflection). While developing professional knowledge is the focus of coach training, Côté and Gilbert suggested that professional knowledge alone is not sufficient to develop effective coaching
Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza and Nicole D. Bolter
to the intentional curriculum and coach training—the processes that form the foundation of the program. The curriculum that is deliberately structured to provide skill-building opportunities and intentionality of lessons means that coaches’ behaviors explicitly focus on helping girls achieve PYD
Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter and Nicole D. Bolter
participate in GOTR, testing whether any differences on life skills transfer are attributable to program characteristics (eg, intentional curriculum, trained coaches). Second, based on GOTR coach training, we assessed the social processes of relatedness (feelings of connectedness with coaches and peers) and
Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier
longitudinal, multiassessment methodology to explore how the coaching context changes throughout a season or across multiple seasons. Implications and Future Research This research may have important implications for coaching training. First, formal coach education should also be geared toward sport
Joseph O.C. Coyne, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton and G. Gregory Haff
also an international basketball squad and professional club TL data may be different due to different competitive schedules. Considering the nature of international elite sport and different coaching/training styles, it is very likely different sports and data sets within the same sport will possess