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Elisa F. Ogawa, Tongjian You, and Suzanne G. Leveille

This paper provides a systematic review of current research findings using exergaming as a treatment for improving cognition and dual-task function in older adults. A literature search was conducted to collect exergaming intervention studies that were either randomized controlled or uncontrolled studies. Of the seven identified studies (five randomized controlled studies and two uncontrolled studies), three studies focused on cognitive function alone, two studies focused on dual-task function alone, and two studies measured both cognitive function and dual-task function. Current evidence supports that exergaming improves cognitive function and dual-task function, which potentially leads to fall prevention. However, it is unclear whether exergaming, which involves both cognitive input and physical exercise, has additional benefits compared with traditional physical exercise alone. Further studies should include traditional exercise as a control group to identify these potential, additional benefits.

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Charles H. Hillman, Kirk I. Erickson, and Bradley D. Hatfield

The past two decades have uncovered the beneficial relation of physical activity and other health behaviors on brain and cognition, with the majority of data emerging from older adult populations. More recently, a similar research thread has emerged in school-aged children, which offers insight into the relation of physical activity to scholastic performance, providing a real-world application of the benefits observed in the laboratory. Technological advances have similarly furthered our understanding of physical activity effects on cognitive and brain health. Given this emerging body of work, this manuscript reviews the basic findings within the field, but more importantly suggests triggers or signals from the emerging literature that will shape the field in the near future. The overall goal of this body of research is to increase cognitive and brain health to promote effective functioning of individuals across the lifespan.

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Jennifer L. Etnier and Benjamin A. Sibley

The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) and physical activity (PA) on the cognitive performance of older women. Postmenopausal women (n = 101) were recruited to complete a PA questionnaire, provide demographic information, and perform the digit-symbol substitution task (DSST) and the trail-making tests (TMT). Regression analyses were conducted for participants with complete data for each cognitive test (DSST n = 62; TMT n = 69). For both tasks, results indicated that PA and education were positively related and age was negatively related to cognitive performance. The interaction of HRT with PA did not add to the predicted variance of either measure of cognitive performance. This was true even after limiting the HRT users to women using unopposed estrogen. It is concluded that the beneficial relationship between PA and these two measures of cognitive performance in postmenopausal women exists irrespective of HRT use.

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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher, and Naiman A. Khan

processing speed, 9 and lower gray matter volume. 10 These negative effects appear to selectively impact brain regions important for cognition and learning, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. 11 , 12 Further, obesity-related inflammation, often found in peripheral

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Spencer E. Boyle, Melissa A. Fothergill, John Metcalfe, Sarah Docherty, and Crystal F. Haskell-Ramsay

multicomponent training appeared to affect inhibitory capacity directly, 9 suggesting different mechanisms underlying the effect following different modalities. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials indicated domain-specific effects on cognition following different

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David X. Marquez, Robert Wilson, Susan Aguiñaga, Priscilla Vásquez, Louis Fogg, Zhi Yang, JoEllen Wilbur, Susan Hughes, and Charles Spanbauer

considerable promise as a culturally appropriate form of PA. In addition, it requires individuals to plan, monitor, and execute a sequence of goal-directed complex actions, potentially influencing cognitive function. In a recent review of the influence of exercise programs on cognition, Gregory and colleagues

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Sophie E. Carter, Richard Draijer, Andrew Thompson, Dick H.J. Thijssen, and Nicola D. Hopkins

and light-intensity physical activity (PA) could improve employee health and well-being as well as productivity. 5 However, there is little evidence to support these recommendations. 8 , 9 Cognition is related to work performance due to its influence on workers’ ability to learn and execute the

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Laura Zlibinaite, Albertas Skurvydas, Sandra Kilikeviciene, and Rima Solianik

months improves cognition—specifically executive function—in overweight children 16 , 17 and obese young adolescents 18 ; moreover, greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognition in overweight and obese individuals 19 – 21 and improved cerebral white matter integrity in obese

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Tracy C. Donachie, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan

precompetition emotions in junior footballers and whether perfectionistic cognitions mediated this relationship over time. Precompetition Emotions Emotions are a complex combination of psychological, physiological, and behavioral reactions to personally meaningful events ( Lazarus, 1991 ). According to cognitive

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Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

) and chronic LTPAs ( Weuve et al., 2004 ) have positive effects on cognition among older adults, and potential mechanisms for cognitive benefit range from an increase in cerebral blood flow to changes in brain structure and function ( Gligoroska & Manchevska, 2012 ). Among children, similar acute