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Debbie Van Biesen, Jennifer Mactavish, Janne Kerremans and Yves C. Vanlandewijck

Evidence-based classification systems in Paralympic sport require knowledge of the underlying effect of impairment in a specific sport. This study investigated the relationship between cognition and tactical proficiency in 88 well-trained table tennis players with intellectual disability (ID; 29 women, 59 men, M ± SD IQ 59.9 ± 9.6). Data were collected at 3 competitions sanctioned by the International Federation for Para-Athletes with Intellectual Disabilities (INAS). A generic cognitive test consisting of 8 neuropsychological subtests was used to assess cognitive abilities relevant to sport (reaction time, processing speed, and decision speed; spatial visualization; fluid reasoning; memory; executive functioning; and visual processing). The backward stepwise-regression analysis model revealed that 18% of the variance in tactical proficiency was attributed to spatial visualization and simple reaction time. Applications of these findings resulted in an evidence-based classification system that led to the reinclusion of athletes with ID in Paralympic table tennis and provide the basis for future research in this important area.

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Christine Stopka, Kevin Morley, Ronald Siders, Josh Schuette, Ashley Houck and Yul Gilmet


To examine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching in Special Olympics athletes and their coaches on sit-and-reach performance.


Repeated-measures ANOVA with Scheffé post hoc analyses on 2 groups: Special Olympics athletes (n = 18, mean age = 15.7) and their coaches without mental retardation (n = 44, mean age = 22.2).

Intervention/Outcome Measures:

Stretching performance was measured in centimeters using a sit-and-reach flexibility box, examining 2 series of 3 stretches. For both groups, the first set of 3 stretches was performed in the following order: baseline, static, PNF. Three to 4 weeks later, the order of the stretches was reversed: baseline, PNF, static.


PNF stretching improved performance regardless of stretching order after baseline and static measures. Static stretching improved performance only from baseline.


Individuals of various ages and cognitive abilities can apparently perform and benefit from PNF stretching.

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Kelsey Picha, Carolina Quintana, Amanda Glueck, Matt Hoch, Nicholas R. Heebner and John P. Abt

challenged participants’ cognitive abilities in a slightly different manner, as participants were asked to solve simple math equations. Overall, motor RT reliability of their 3 protocols ranged from 0.63 to 0.72, or fair to moderate. 7 Our 3 most similar protocols to the ones used in previous studies are

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Femke van Abswoude, John van der Kamp and Bert Steenbergen

participation in sports, physical activity, and activities of daily living. In this respect, it is increasingly recognized that motor learning interventions should be tailored to the children’s individual motor and cognitive abilities and constraints ( Chow, Davids, Button, & Renshaw, 2015 ). At present

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Breanna E. Studenka and Kodey Myers

of movement selection and movement programming, and cognitive abilities, such as reasoning, working memory, and procedural memory. References Aldridge , M.A. , Stone , K.R. , Sweeney , M.H. , & Bower , T.G.R. ( 2000 ). Preverbal children with autism understand the intentions of others

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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak and Albert R. Cavalier

baseline phase of the study. Demographic information about each participant was obtained through interviews with the participants and their parents. Cognitive abilities were tested with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence-Second Edition (WASI-II; Wechsler, 2011 ) by a certified school

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Alison B. Pritchard Orr, Kathy Keiver, Chris P. Bertram and Sterling Clarren

anxiety disorders ( Paley & O’Connor, 2009 ). One of the cardinal deficits affecting neuropsychological function in individuals with PAE is in executive function (EF) ( Kodituwakku, 2009 ; Rasmussen, 2005 ). EF refers to a set of cognitive abilities required to attain goals efficiently in nonroutine

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Kenneth Aggerholm and Kristian Møller Moltke Martiny

knowledge in our hands, which is only given through a bodily effort and cannot be translated by an objective designation” ( Merleau-Ponty, 1962 , p. 166). This implies that bodily understanding and learning are not solely physical or cognitive abilities. They belong to the realm of “I can” and involve