.), Frontiers in econometrics (pp. 105 – 142 ). New York, NY : Academic Press . McKelvey , S.M. ( 2006 ). Coca-Cola vs. PepsiCo—A “super” battleground for the cola wars? Sport Marketing Quarterly, 15 ( 2 ), 114 – 123 . Meenaghan , J.A. ( 1983 ). Commercial sponsorship . European Journal of
Jonathan A. Jensen and T. Bettina Cornwell
Dan C. Hilliard
An interpretive analysis of mass circulation magazine articles on leading male and female professional tennis players indicates that both groups are treated in terms of a “debunking motif” which reveals their imperfections and character flaws. The flaws identified among the women are closely associated with stereotypically feminine gender roles, while the flaws observed among the men are associated with stereotypically masculine gender roles. Thus, the articles reinforce the concept of professional sport as a male preserve, while suggesting an underlying traditionally feminine gender role for the female athletes. It is argued that this construction of the female athlete role derives from the commercial sponsorship of professional tennis.
Nicolas Chanavat, Guillaume Martinent and Alain Ferrand
Notwithstanding the substantial development of sponsorship investigations, relationships between the sponsor and cosponsees and fan’s responses (i.e., cognitive, affective and conative) have not been investigated yet in a multiple sponsorship sport event context. Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of commercial sponsorships on the intention to purchase sponsor products in relation to brand image and brand attachment. Furthermore, this researcher analyzed the relationships between a sponsor (adidas), an event (2006 FIFA Soccer World Cup Germany), a team (French National Soccer Team) and a top player (Zinédine Zidane). Structural equation modeling was used to conduct this research. The crucial results revealed that a multiple sponsorship arrangement creates interactions between the sponsor and the sponsees brands cognitive and affective stages. Secondly, the model demonstrated that multiple sponsorship activates brand behavioral dimensions (i.e., cognitive, affective and conative) according to the hierarchy of effects model (Lavidge & Steiner, 1961).
Cup, which, having grown since its inception in 1928, had attracted lucrative commercial sponsorship deals. Additionally, because of this financial security, FIFA had been able to act more independently from the IOC. 43 Interestingly, Krieger points out that a key factor in the IAAF’s pursuit of its
Sarah Kelly and Michael Ireland
alcohol and sport ( Crompton, 1993 ). While the banning of tobacco sponsorship and advertising did not result in long-term detriment to the commercialization of sports, the current sporting landscape can be contrasted, with its significantly greater reliance on commercial sponsorship for sustainability
Bastian Popp, Chris Horbel and Claas Christian Germelmann
, 2006 ) and may even lead to the emergence of a “doppelgänger brand image,” that is, a competing set of brand meanings ( Thompson, Rindfleisch, & Arsel, 2006 ). Such negative associations with a brand may lead to both consumer confusion and brand avoidance ( Popp et al., 2016 ). Commercial sponsorship
Liam J.A. Lenten, Aaron C.T. Smith and Ralph-Christopher Bayer
commercial sponsorships and other contracts, its policy does not wield direct pecuniary consequences. This article explores the potential to augment WADA’s existing antidoping policy spectrum with “conditional superannuation,” originally conceived in a rudimentary form by Lazear ( 1979 ) and discussed by
Kathy Babiak, Lucie Thibault and Annick Willem
( 2014 ) 16 Professional sport/commercial/sponsorships Cobbs ( 2011 ); O’Reilly et al. ( 2011 ) Copeland et al. ( 1996 ); Shaw ( 2007 ); Wolfe et al. ( 2002 ) Dickson et al. ( 2010 ); Hamil and Morrow ( 2011 ) Burden and Li ( 2009 ) Cousens et al. ( 2006 ); O’Brien and Slack ( 2003 ); Olkkonen ( 2001