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Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova

Several physical therapy methods were used as postexercise recovery strategies, alleviating musculoskeletal alterations secondary to training and competition. Among these interventions, contrast therapy—which alternates between hot and cold treatment modalities 1 —whole-body cryotherapy, and cold

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Paul E. Yeatts, Ronald Davis, Jun Oh and Gwang-Yon Hwang

(NA—awful, crummy, and discouraged), tranquility (TR—calm, relaxed, and peaceful), and FA (fatigued, tired, and worn out). Participation in structured physical activity sessions (such as a structured exercise program) can enhance PA and minimize NA ( Driver & Lox, 2007 ). Sport competition represents

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Mário A.M. Simim, Marco Túlio de Mello, Bruno V.C. Silva, Dayane F. Rodrigues, João Paulo P. Rosa, Bruno Pena Couto and Andressa da Silva

). During competitions, performance is directly related to the mechanical aspects of the chair (mass, mass distribution, wheel features/tires, and alignment), chair maintenance, chair–user interface, and athlete characteristics ( Goosey-Tolfrey, 2010 ; Laferrier et al., 2012 ; Paulson & Goosey

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Robert J. Schinke, Stephanie Hanrahan, Duke Peltier, Ginette Michel, Richard Danielson, Patricia Pickard, Chris Pheasant, Lawrence Enosse and Mark Peltier

This study was designed to elucidate the pre-competition and competition practices of elite Canadian Aboriginal athletes. Elite Canadian Aboriginal athletes (N = 23) participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were segmented into meaning units by academic and Aboriginal community-appointed members, and verified with each respondent individually through mail and a password-protected website. Competition tactics were divided into three chronological stages, each with specific athlete strategies: (a) general training before competitions, (b) pre-competition week, and (c) competition strategies. The majority of the numerous strategies they reported could be considered as reflecting native traditions, appropriate attitudes/perspective, or standard sport psychology techniques. Suggestions are proposed for applied researchers and practitioners working with cultural populations, as well as how these strategies might be developed for use with other populations.

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Bruce H. Miles

Competitive opportunities for handicapped or disabled athletes are burgeoning. Different populations have different capabilities. Moderately (MO-MR) and mildly mentally retarded (MI-MR) athletes have unique abilities, and many physical educators, teachers, and volunteers spend countless hours preparing individuals and teams for tournaments and competitions. Two models are presented to assist in assessing MO-MR and MI-MR athletes’ abilities and levels of social functioning. Additionally a hierarchy of motor performance environments is presented. Discussion entails proper placement of athletes in a motor performance environment after ability and social functioning assessments have been completed.

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Bob Murray, John Stofan and Bob Sallis


This article summarizes a case of ischemic colitis suffered by a triathlete during an Ironman competition.


Exercise results in a significant reduction in splanchnic blood flow to help maintain cardiovascular function. When dehydration and heat stress accompany exercise, blood flow to the splanchnic vasculature is further reduced, increasing the risk of local ischemia and tissue injury.

Differential Diagnosis:

Ischemic colitis caused by dehydration and heat stress.


Right hemicolectomy involving a 16-cm segment of ischemic large intestine and appendectomy the day following the race.


This case study highlights one of the risks associated with dehydration during prolonged exercise in the heat. Of particular interest are practical interventions to reduce health and performance issues.


Poor hydration and nutrition practices during intense exercise can affect gut function, impair performance, and jeopardize health. Optimal intake of fluid, carbohydrate, and salt will enhance performance and reduce risk to health.

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William M. Adams, Yuri Hosokawa and Douglas J. Casa


Although body cooling has both performance and safety benefits, knowledge on optimizing cooling during specific sport competition is limited.


To identify when, during sport competition, it is optimal for body cooling and to identify optimal body-cooling modalities to enhance safety and maximize sport performance.

Evidence Acquisition:

A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify articles with specific context regarding body cooling, sport performance, and cooling modalities used during sport competition. A search of scientific peer-reviewed literature examining the effects of body cooling on exercise performance was done to examine the influence of body cooling on exercise performance. Subsequently, a literature search was done to identify effective cooling modalities that have been shown to improve exercise performance.

Evidence Synthesis:

The cooling modalities that are most effective in cooling the body during sport competition depend on the sport, timing of cooling, and feasibility based on the constraints of the sports rules and regulations. Factoring in the length of breaks (halftime substitutions, etc), the equipment worn during competition, and the cooling modalities that offer the greatest potential to cool must be considered in each individual sport.


Scientific evidence supports using body cooling as a method of improving performance during sport competition. Developing a strategy to use cooling modalities that are scientifically evidence-based to improve performance while maximizing athlete’s safety warrants further investigation.

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Assuman Nuhu and Matthew Kutz

Epidemiological research on soccer injuries during African soccer competition is sparse. This study was conducted among 12 teams in the Council of East and Central Africa Football Association (CECAFA) challenge cup tournament. Fifty-seven injuries were reported (2.7 injuries per match), or 82.25 injuries per 1,000 match hours. The ankle was most often injured (23%). The majority (81%) of injuries occurred as a result of traumatic contact, with the most injuries occurring in the last 30 min of the match. A majority (84%) of athletes who sustained injuries continued to play. African medical personnel should be trained to handle the unique constraints and variety of injuries sustained during soccer competition.

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Bradley P. Wyble and David A. Rosenbaum

Smeets et al. (2016) suggested that motor adjustments may be quick because they don’t require stimulus detection. We agree that these rapid adjustments probably reflect rapid perceptual processing rather than rapid motor execution, but we question whether the absence of detection is the best way to explain the effect. We suggest that it is unclear what mechanisms would be involved in detection and why detection would be required in some of the cases discussed by Smeets et al. Instead, we suggest that ultra-fast motor adjustments require very little competition among possible stimuli or responses. We suggest that escaping competition rather than avoiding detection may be the cause of the very short reaction times that Smeets et al. identified.

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John Garhammer

Films taken at the first Women’s World Weightlifting Championship were analyzed to determine the average power output during the total pulling phase, and the second pull phase, for the heaviest successful snatch and clean lift of gold medalists in each of nine body-weight divisions. Comparisons were made with previously published data on power output by male lifters in World and Olympic competition. Average relative power output values were one and a half to two times greater for both men and women when only the second pull phase of each lift was analyzed. Results show that women can generate higher short-term power outputs than previously documented, but lower than for men in absolute values and relative to body mass. Male/female comparisons in other high power sport events and basic strength measures are discussed. The high power outputs suggest the value of including the types of lifts analyzed in training programs to improve short-term power output.