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Erika D. Van Dyke, Judy L. Van Raalte, Elizabeth M. Mullin and Britton W. Brewer

.g., Gould, Hodge, Peterson, & Giannini, 1989 ) and the effects of self-talk interventions on competitive performance ( Hatzigeorgiadis, Galanis, Zourbanos, & Theodorakis, 2014 ; Weinberg, Miller, & Horn, 2012 ). Some investigations have explored self-talk during competition, but these studies have focused

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Joseph A. McQuillan, Julia R. Casadio, Deborah K. Dulson, Paul B. Laursen and Andrew E. Kilding

-trained, competitive male endurance cyclists (mean ± SD age 25 ± 8 y, body mass 74.9 ± 7.3 kg, height 180 ± 6 cm, peak oxygen uptake [ V ˙ O 2 peak] 64 ± 5 mL · kg −1  · min −1 ) provided written consent to participate in this study, which had received ethical approval from the Auckland University of Technology ethics

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

, different behavior of the opponent has been shown to invite different pacing responses. 5 However, apart from the opponents as most obvious affordances in competition, many other external cues will be presented simultaneously to an exerciser in real-life competitive situations. Therefore, it seems likely

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Francesco Campa, Catarina N. Matias, Elisabetta Marini, Steven B. Heymsfield, Stefania Toselli, Luís B. Sardinha and Analiza M. Silva

dilution techniques and BIVA in athletes throughout a competitive season. Our hypothesis was that vector displacements could reflect changes in body fluid over the season. Methods Participants This was a longitudinal investigation of 58 athletes engaged in 5 sports (men: age 18.7 [4.0] y and women: age 19

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Alexander Tibor Latinjak

purpose of this study was to describe goal-directed, spontaneous and stimulus-independent thoughts and mindwandering. The study consisted of a laboratory-based competitive task, experienced by athletes as similar to sports practice in terms of cognitive, motivational, and emotional factors. The task

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Fábio J. Lanferdini, Rodrigo R. Bini, Bruno M. Baroni, Kelli D. Klein, Felipe P. Carpes and Marco A. Vaz

of this study was to investigate the effects of 4 different LLLT dosages on performance during a time-to-exhaustion test in competitive cyclists. The second objective of the study was to investigate the effects of LLLT on EMG spectral properties (overall, high and low frequencies) during the

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Ida S. Svendsen, Espen Tønnesen, Leif Inge Tjelta and Stein Ørn

. Riders are recruited by a WT team or a continental pro team based primarily on competitive performance and results at an early senior level (19–23 y of age). To make this early selection, athletes must be at a high performance level already at 19 years of age. However, there are currently no longitudinal

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Damir Zubac, Hrvoje Karnincic and Damir Sekulic

competitive success. Indeed, according to recent findings by Reale et al, 3 a greater magnitude of body weight regain (by ∼1.5% in medal winners compared with nonmedal winners) during limited recovery time was positively related to competitive success in national-level judo competitors in Australia

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Richard S. Lazarus

In this article, I have attempted to apply my cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotion, on which I have been working for over 50 years, to an understanding of performance in competitive sports. I begin with four metatheoretical and theoretical positions: (a) stress and emotion should be considered as a single topic; (b) discrete emotion categories offer the richest and most useful information; (c) appraisal, coping, and relational meaning are essential theoretical constructs for stress and emotion; and (d) although process and structure are both essential to understanding, when it comes to stress and the emotions, we cannot afford to under-emphasize process. These positions and elaborations of them lead to my examination of how a number of discrete emotions might influence performance in competitive sports.

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Austin Swain and Graham Jones

This study examined the relationship between sport achievement orientation and cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety, and self-confidence in a sample of male (n=60) track and field athletes. Subjects responded to the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) on five occasions during the precompetition period and also completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ). Stepwise multiple-regression analyses were employed in order to determine whether any of the SOQ subscales emerged as significant predictors of the CSAI-2 subscale scores. The dominant predictor to emerge for each anxiety subcomponent was the competitiveness subscale. The subjects were then dichotomized into high and low groups of competitiveness by means of the median-split technique. Two-way analyses of variance revealed significant group by time-to-competition interactions for both cognitive and somatic anxiety. In the case of cognitive anxiety, the high competitive group exhibited no change across time; the low competitive group showed a progressive increase as the competition neared. Findings for somatic anxiety revealed that the low competitive group reported an earlier elevation in the somatic response. Significant main effects of both time-to-event and group (but no interaction) were found for self-confidence. The findings revealed that the high competitive group, although reporting higher levels of self-confidence throughout the experimental period, reported reduced self-confidence on the day of competition; in the low competitive group, self-confidence remained stable. These results suggest that the precompetition temporal patterning of the multidimensional anxiety subcomponents differ as a function of competitiveness.