This study assessed age-related changes in power and heart rate in 114 competitive male cyclists age 15–73 years. Participants completed a maximal Kingcycle™ ergometer test with maximal ramped minute power (RMPmax, W) recorded as the highest average power during any 60 s and maximal heart rate (HRmax, beats/min) as the highest value during the test. From age 15 to 29 (n = 38) RMPmax increased by 7.2 W/year (r = .53, SE 49 W, p < .05). From age 30 to 73 (n = 78) RMPmax declined by 2.4 W/year (r = –.49, SE 49 W, p < .05). Heart rate decreased across the full age range by 0.66 beats · min–1 · year–1 (r = –.75, SE 9 beats/min, p < .05). Age accounted for only 25% of the variance in RMPmax but 56% in HRmax. RMPmax was shown to peak at age 30, then decline with age, whereas HRmax declined across the full age range.
James Balmer, Christopher R. Potter, Steve R. Bird and R.C. Richard Davison
Erika D. Van Dyke, Judy L. Van Raalte, Elizabeth M. Mullin and Britton W. Brewer
.g., Gould, Hodge, Peterson, & Giannini, 1989 ) and the effects of self-talk interventions on competitive performance ( Hatzigeorgiadis, Galanis, Zourbanos, & Theodorakis, 2014 ; Weinberg, Miller, & Horn, 2012 ). Some investigations have explored self-talk during competition, but these studies have focused
Uta Kraus, Sophie Clara Holtmann and Tanja Legenbauer
Eating Disturbances Among Athletes In the last decade, the relationship between competitive sports and eating disturbances among athletes has gained increasing interest and several studies were initiated that investigated prevalence rates of eating disorders in athletes as well as associations
Marcus Colon, Andrew Hodgson, Eimear Donlon and James E.J. Murphy
endurance athletes can have negative effects at the cellular level ( Collins et al., 2003 ). Accordingly, the hypothesis of this study was that TL is positively correlated with physiological parameters key to athletic performance and as such competitive triathlon training would preserve TL over regular
James E. Johnson, Chrysostomos Giannoulakis and Beau F. Scott
( Wong, 1994 ). Among the most important functions of state associations is to ensure that participants are provided with fair and equal opportunities during competition ( Blackburn, Forsyth, Olson, & Whitehead, 2013 ). This concept, known as competitive balance, constitutes a complex and controversial
J. Dickinson, T. Sebastien and L. Taylor
Children in the age range 8 to 13 years (72 males and 53 females), completed a game preference questionnaire and participated in a novel competitive game task, both the questionnaire and method of approach to the game could be evaluated in order to classify subjects as potents, fortunists, strategists, or potent-strategists in terms of competitive style. Predictions were made on the basis of studies within and between cultures concerning gender differences in competitive style. Based on evidence from within the North American culture, predictions were made concerning game preference and age differences. The results supported the predictions in terms of gender differences. Changes in game preference with age and gender, and age differences in competitive-style also conformed with predictions. It is considered that the novel competitive game task might make a useful instrument for evaluating competitive style.
Thomas Curran and Andrew P. Hill
perfectionism predict pronounced distress following competitive failure in sport. To do so, we experimentally induced successive competitive failure on a cycle ergometer sprint task and observed the emotional consequences. Multidimensional Perfectionism Perfectionism is a personality trait characterized by the
Diane L. Gill, Betty C. Kelley, Jeffrey J. Martin and Christina M. Caruso
We compared two sport-specific measures of competitive orientation, the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill & Deeter, 1988) and the Competitive Orientation Inventory (COI; Vealey, 1986), and an alternative 4-item version of the COL Male and female athletes and nonathletes at two small colleges completed questionnaire packets. Competitive-orientation scores were similar to those reported in previous research. The 4-item measure correlated with the COI, and neither of those measures correlated with the SOQ. As in previous studies, males scored higher than females on SOQ competitiveness and win orientation, and athletes scored higher than nonathletes on all SOQ scores. Our results suggest that the SOQ and COI do not assess the same competitive-orientation constructs. The SOQ assesses sport-specific achievement orientation; the COI assesses the relative importance of performance versus outcome. Our 4-item measure is comparable and provides a reasonable substitute for the more complex COI.
Alexander Tibor Latinjak
purpose of this study was to describe goal-directed, spontaneous and stimulus-independent thoughts and mindwandering. The study consisted of a laboratory-based competitive task, experienced by athletes as similar to sports practice in terms of cognitive, motivational, and emotional factors. The task
Timothy Baghurst, Anthony Parish and George Denny
The purpose of this study was to determine reasons women become competitive amateur bodybuilders. Participants were 63 adult female competitive bodybuilders who posted their biographies on a bodybuilding website. Each statement explaining why participants became bodybuilders was classified by a panel of current female bodybuilders into one of six categories. The most frequently stated category was Emulation (27%), followed by Self Esteem and Empowerment (24%), Previous Participation in Sport (22%), Health (17%), and Other (10%). These findings suggest that motivators for competitive female amateur bodybuilding stem from multiple sources, but in general are similar to those of their male counterparts. Future avenues for research are discussed.