This study assessed age-related changes in power and heart rate in 114 competitive male cyclists age 15–73 years. Participants completed a maximal Kingcycle™ ergometer test with maximal ramped minute power (RMPmax, W) recorded as the highest average power during any 60 s and maximal heart rate (HRmax, beats/min) as the highest value during the test. From age 15 to 29 (n = 38) RMPmax increased by 7.2 W/year (r = .53, SE 49 W, p < .05). From age 30 to 73 (n = 78) RMPmax declined by 2.4 W/year (r = –.49, SE 49 W, p < .05). Heart rate decreased across the full age range by 0.66 beats · min–1 · year–1 (r = –.75, SE 9 beats/min, p < .05). Age accounted for only 25% of the variance in RMPmax but 56% in HRmax. RMPmax was shown to peak at age 30, then decline with age, whereas HRmax declined across the full age range.
James Balmer, Christopher R. Potter, Steve R. Bird and R.C. Richard Davison
Joseph A. McQuillan, Julia R. Casadio, Deborah K. Dulson, Paul B. Laursen and Andrew E. Kilding
-trained, competitive male endurance cyclists (mean ± SD age 25 ± 8 y, body mass 74.9 ± 7.3 kg, height 180 ± 6 cm, peak oxygen uptake [ V ˙ O 2 peak] 64 ± 5 mL · kg −1 · min −1 ) provided written consent to participate in this study, which had received ethical approval from the Auckland University of Technology ethics
Uta Kraus, Sophie Clara Holtmann and Tanja Legenbauer
Eating Disturbances Among Athletes In the last decade, the relationship between competitive sports and eating disturbances among athletes has gained increasing interest and several studies were initiated that investigated prevalence rates of eating disorders in athletes as well as associations
Christian A. Clermont, Sean T. Osis, Angkoon Phinyomark and Reed Ferber
associated with running performance, and one of the main kinematic differences associated with better running economy is a less extended leg at toe-off via less plantarflexion and/or less knee extension. 10 , 11 , 13 , 14 However, research on kinematic differences between competitive and recreational
Marcus Colon, Andrew Hodgson, Eimear Donlon and James E.J. Murphy
endurance athletes can have negative effects at the cellular level ( Collins et al., 2003 ). Accordingly, the hypothesis of this study was that TL is positively correlated with physiological parameters key to athletic performance and as such competitive triathlon training would preserve TL over regular
Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga
, different behavior of the opponent has been shown to invite different pacing responses. 5 However, apart from the opponents as most obvious affordances in competition, many other external cues will be presented simultaneously to an exerciser in real-life competitive situations. Therefore, it seems likely
J. Dickinson, T. Sebastien and L. Taylor
Children in the age range 8 to 13 years (72 males and 53 females), completed a game preference questionnaire and participated in a novel competitive game task, both the questionnaire and method of approach to the game could be evaluated in order to classify subjects as potents, fortunists, strategists, or potent-strategists in terms of competitive style. Predictions were made on the basis of studies within and between cultures concerning gender differences in competitive style. Based on evidence from within the North American culture, predictions were made concerning game preference and age differences. The results supported the predictions in terms of gender differences. Changes in game preference with age and gender, and age differences in competitive-style also conformed with predictions. It is considered that the novel competitive game task might make a useful instrument for evaluating competitive style.
Thomas Curran and Andrew P. Hill
perfectionism predict pronounced distress following competitive failure in sport. To do so, we experimentally induced successive competitive failure on a cycle ergometer sprint task and observed the emotional consequences. Multidimensional Perfectionism Perfectionism is a personality trait characterized by the
Francesco Campa, Catarina N. Matias, Elisabetta Marini, Steven B. Heymsfield, Stefania Toselli, Luís B. Sardinha and Analiza M. Silva
dilution techniques and BIVA in athletes throughout a competitive season. Our hypothesis was that vector displacements could reflect changes in body fluid over the season. Methods Participants This was a longitudinal investigation of 58 athletes engaged in 5 sports (men: age 18.7 [4.0] y and women: age 19
Diane L. Gill, Betty C. Kelley, Jeffrey J. Martin and Christina M. Caruso
We compared two sport-specific measures of competitive orientation, the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill & Deeter, 1988) and the Competitive Orientation Inventory (COI; Vealey, 1986), and an alternative 4-item version of the COL Male and female athletes and nonathletes at two small colleges completed questionnaire packets. Competitive-orientation scores were similar to those reported in previous research. The 4-item measure correlated with the COI, and neither of those measures correlated with the SOQ. As in previous studies, males scored higher than females on SOQ competitiveness and win orientation, and athletes scored higher than nonathletes on all SOQ scores. Our results suggest that the SOQ and COI do not assess the same competitive-orientation constructs. The SOQ assesses sport-specific achievement orientation; the COI assesses the relative importance of performance versus outcome. Our 4-item measure is comparable and provides a reasonable substitute for the more complex COI.