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Geoffrey T. Burns, Kenneth M. Kozloff and Ronald F. Zernicke

constraint of competitive, economic, and/or social pressures. Studies of elite performers have informed our knowledge of efficient movement patterns such as running ( Cavanagh, Pollock, & Landa, 1977 ; Williams, Cavanagh, & Ziff, 1987 ), cycling ( Coyle et al., 1991 ), jumping ( Dapena, Mcdonald, & Cappaert

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Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones

athletes, both competitive and recreational, to illuminate growth factors that influence or result from involvement in sport during the growing years. Specifically, I focus on whether the physical attributes of young athletes are a result of nature or nurture. That is, are young athletes born with physical

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Richard B. Kreider

execute the coach’s game plan. For this reason, many teams have developed a multidisciplinary performance-enhancement team to optimize performance and athlete care. Strength, conditioning, and nutrition play a vital role in helping athletes perform to their potential. Consequently, nearly all competitive

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Mary E. Rudisill

Over the past 35 years, institutions of higher education have been involved in strategic planning in an attempt to promote their priorities and remain competitive in challenging economic times. Efforts have been made to improve the process and effectiveness of strategic planning over those years. Although strategic planning can be effective, the plan must be created properly and also implemented in an effective manner. Since online learning has become an increasingly important revenue source for many institutions of higher education, as well as an alternative way to provide instruction to students, it is typically included within institutional strategic plans and prioritized for growth. Ensuring that faculty “buy-in” to this goal and strategic priorities requires significant faculty engagement. In this paper, options for implementation and ways to promote engagement are discussed within a case study of how Auburn University kinesiology faculty took part in educational transformation and innovation by connecting to the campus mission.

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Jeffrey J. Martin

In the last 10-20 years sport psychologists have started to emphasize the value of mental strengths such as self-confidence for disability sport athletes (Martin, 2012). The pinnacle of disability sport competition, the Paralympics, is becoming increasingly competitive, suggesting a strong need for athletes to possess effective mental skills. Like the Olympics there is intense pressure to win at the Paralympics. In the current review article I discuss the body of knowledge in sport psychology that focuses on potential direct and indirect determinants of performance in elite disability sport. The review is organized around a personnel developmental model used by Martin (1999, 2005, 2012). This model is a humanistic model and revolves around foundation qualities, psychological methods and skills, and facilitative and debilitative factors. The premise of the model is also similar to McCann's sentiment that “at the Olympics [Paralympics], everything is a performance issue” (2008, p. 267).

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Stefan Szymanski

programming model to identify equilibrium competitive balance in a sport league) at a time when the challenges of data analysis were significant. Although data existed, it was often not easy to collate them, and in the era before powerful chip processors and cheap RAM capacity, the means to analyze large

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Chris G. Harwood and Sam N. Thrower

competition. In an innovative and extended piece of field-based intervention research, Hatzigeorgiadis et al. ( 2014 ) used a multiple-comparison cross-subject design to examine the effectiveness of motivational and instructional self-talk on percentage improvement in competitive swimming times. Forty

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Cesar R. Torres

“mutualist” interpretation of competitive sport is defended by a number of sport philosophers. Thus, Simon ( 1991 ) defines competition as “ a mutually acceptable quest for excellence through challenge ” (p. 23). This view implies that contestants are partners who construct together athletic excellence. In

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Camilla J. Knight

-sport-parenting issues ( Holt et al., 2018 ). Initial evidence pertaining to sport-parenting interventions came in the form of practitioner reflections. Richards and Winter ( 2013 ) shared their experience of delivering an education program for parents of competitive gymnasts in the United Kingdom. The program consisted

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Diane L. Gill

roots of sport and exercise psychology go back over 100 years to Triplett’s ( 1898 ) observations of competitive cyclists and experiments on the influence of others on performance. Other early isolated work can be found in the early 1900s, and as most histories of sport and exercise psychology note, a