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Damon Burton

This investigation evaluated the impact of goal specificity and task complexity on basketball skill development. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) specific goals promote greater skill improvement than general goals; (b) goal setting effects are significantly greater for simple than for complex tasks. Students in a basketball class were matched on pretest skill and assigned to either specific or general goal setting groups. During each of 15 class periods of the 8-week course, students were assigned specific or general goals for each fundamental basketball skill in a 7-station circuit. Results partially confirmed both hypotheses. Profile analyses revealed that specific-goal subjects significantly outperformed, general-goal classmates on defensive footwork and ball handling drills whereas dribbling drills approached significance. Task complexity results suggested that subjects setting specific goals performed significantly better than those setting general goals on low but not on high complexity tasks, whereas results for moderate task complexity were mixed.

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Darren J. Paul, Paul S. Bradley and George P. Nassis

Time-motion analysis is a valuable data-collection technique used to quantify the match running performance of elite soccer players. However, interpreting the reductions in running performance in the 2nd half or temporarily after the most intense period of games is highly complex, as it could be attributed to physical or mental fatigue, pacing strategies, contextual factors, or a combination of mutually inclusive factors. Given that research in this domain typically uses a reductionist approach whereby match running performance is examined in isolation without integrating other factors, this ultimately leads to a 1-dimensional insight into match performance. Subsequently, a cohesive review of influencing factors does not yet exist. The aim of this commentary is to provide a detailed insight into the complexity of match running performance and its most influential factors.

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Dan Weaving, Clive Beggs, Nicholas Dalton-Barron, Ben Jones and Grant Abt

important tool for practitioners when determining the likelihood of a meaningful change over time, this approach suffers from the major limitation that each individual variable generates its own individual change statistic. Therefore, given the complexity of athlete monitoring, if practitioners collect 3

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Matt Hoffmann, Todd Loughead and Jeffrey Caron

research, we were interested in the complexity and lived experiences of one exemplary peer athlete mentor. As noted by Kuklick, Gearity, Thompson, and Neelis ( 2016 ), single-case-study designs are not concerned with statistical generalizability. However, given that some of our results link well with

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Anne O’Dwyer and Richard Bowles

complexity of coaching as “the consistent application of integrated professional, interpersonal, and intrapersonal knowledge to improve athletes’ competence, confidence, connection, and character . . . ” (p. 316). Quality coaching ( United States Olympic Committee, 2017 ) encompasses these three types of

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Paul S. Bradley and Jack D. Ade

performance in relation to the tactical roles and instructions given to the players and enable practitioners to effectively translate match metrics into training and testing. 35 Alternatively, this contemporary approach may well add complexity to an area that conceivably needs more simplicity regarding the

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Kyle Paquette and Pierre Trudel

The complexities of learning and sport coaching have both been widely accepted notions and central themes to their respective literatures for decades (e.g.,  Rogers, 1969 ; Smith, Smoll, & Hunt, 1977 ). Despite being equipped with these fundamental understandings, programs designed to educate

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

complexities of the individual, exposed to various stimuli (physical, emotional, and genetic), are probably much more complicated than most periodization purists would want to admit ( Kiely, 2018 ). Furthermore, the impact of nutrition on training adaptation and performance needs to be recognized. The 2007

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Pierre Trudel, Michel Milestetd and Diane M. Culver

(c) reflective tools are rarely proposed to the students and therefore the students’ reports are too often limited to the number of hours spent in the field along with general impressions on their practical experience ( Galatti et al., 2016 ; Milistetd, Trudel, et al., 2018 ). The complexity of

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Noam Eyal, Michael Bar-Eli, Gershon Tenenbaum and Joan S. Pie

The aim of this study was to examine whether outcome expectations can be generalized from one defined task to other tasks. A deception paradigm was employed in which outcome expectations were manipulated. High, low, or medium expectations toward performing five tasks, which gradually increased in complexity and shared a common skill, were manipulated. Ninety adult males were randomly assigned to manipulation groups. A within-subjects repeated measures ANOVA indicated that those manipulated by medium expectations showed elevated perceptions of outcome expectations. Their performance, however, was superior only in the two tasks most similar in complexity to the initial task. On the less similar tasks, the differences among the groups were insignificant. A generalization effect can therefore be demonstrated on outcome expectations and performance to a certain degree of task complexity. Implications of the superior performance of participants manipulated to produce medium outcome expectations are discussed.