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Marlene A. Dixon and Per G. Svensson

resources and support to develop their vision. Throughout its start-up phase, this organization faced increased institutional complexity as they grappled with a series of incompatible prescriptions and demands from multiple institutional logics, consistent with other research in this area ( Greenwood

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R. Glenn Cummins, Norman E. Youngblood and Mike Milford

Sport telecasts are frequently the showcase and testing ground for innovative broadcast technologies. One particularly novel example is ESPN’s coverage of college athletics via its multiscreen, or mosaic, format. This experiment tested the impact of its visual complexity by comparing the response of fans high and low in team identification to this format versus a traditional presentation of dull and exciting game play. For highly identified spectators, this format was a detriment to their appreciation of game play, whereas the format had little impact for viewers with low levels of team identification. Moreover, independent of degree of team identification, viewers reported a more negative evaluation of this technique than of a traditional broadcast, and results were consistent regardless of the dull or exciting nature of game play.

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Steve Swanson and Aubrey Kent

The way in which leaders in sport organizations are evaluated by their employees is dependent upon perceived levels of credibility and implicit theories of leadership. Leader knowledge and expertise play significant roles in this process, yet both have been treated as comprehensive constructs irrespective of specific knowledge domains. Drawing from the education literature, this research looks to disentangle the global perspective used by the credibility and prototypicality literatures. It is proposed that employees in sport organizations expect managers to possess domain-specific expertise which is separate from the functional area requirement. Two different samples including professional sport employees and sport management students were used, with confirmatory factor and conjoint analyses used to test the research hypotheses. The results support the notion that distinct psychological processes exist within sport organizations, and that sport domain knowledge and expertise are distinct constructs which play important roles in the perception of leaders within this context.

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Emily Dane-Staples

classroom tasks but are ones commonly used because they require student engagement with material ( Mangram et al., 2015 ; Yew et al., 2016 ). Between tasks, the level of engagement and the complexity is not always equal, which is why hierarchical models related to active learning have been proposed. The

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Heather J. Lawrence, Andy J. Fodor, Chris L. Ullrich, Nick R. Kopka and Peter J. Titlebaum

lacks sufficient storage capacity and permanent sales locations. However, space exists for temporary concessions stands to be set up each game day. Ordering, delivery timing, inventory management, and establishing points of sale would also be challenging. Given the complexity of using existing and added

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Khirey B. Walker, Chad S. Seifried and Brian P. Soebbing

constructed through the synergy of complexity, formalization, and centralization ( Slack & Parent, 2006 ). Presented through three paths, complexity focuses on how organizations are separated into various departments. First, horizontal differentiation can influence complexity through the creation and

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Joris Drayer and Daniel A. Rascher

Teaching a graduate level sport finance class can be quite complex. With a variety of concepts such as pricing, budgeting, and public funding, to convey in a limited amount of time, new forms of pedagogy are necessary to assist instructors as this technologically-advanced generation enters into academia. Subsequently, technology has been created to apply basic concepts related to finance to the complexity of a professional sports organization. One such program is the Oakland A’s Baseball Business Simulator. Through interviews and “emotional recall” (Ellis, 2004), this evaluative case study seeks to determine the effectiveness of this technology within this environment.

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Athena Yiamouyiannis, Heather J. Lawrence, Mary A. Hums and B. David Ridpath

Intercollegiate athletics administrators face many difficult and complex issues throughout the course of their careers related to balancing athletics budgets, remaining competitive in select sports and complying with Title IX. To better prepare future athletics administrators to handle these challenges, the authors provide background information on the complexities of the issue, discuss use of the Responsible Decision Making Model for Athletics (RDMMA) as a tool to assist in the process, and demonstrate the use of this model as applied to intercollegiate athletics. The RDMMA provides a framework from which to organize information, ensure all constituencies are considered, save time in decision making, and evaluate intended and unintended consequences of decisions. Professors can use the RDMMA as a tool in the classroom to bridge the gap between academic theory and practical application of these concepts to help guide future athletics administrators on how to approach complex issues and responsibilities.

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Rhema D. Fuller, Brennan K. Berg and Michael Hutchinson

Increasingly, sport managers are attempting to use athletics to positively affect their colleges' and universities' prestige. To highlight this contemporary issue, this case study presents an athletic director, Dwight Stanley, who has to give a recommendation on whether his institution should maintain its membership in the NJCAA or pursue membership in another athletic association, namely the NAIA or NCAA DIII.This case study is designed to capture the tension sport managers face as they encounter complex decisions. Accordingly, each membership option is presented with its advantages and disadvantages, as well as its supporters and detractors.Consequently, students will be required to critically assess a variety of factors to determine the institution's most feasible course of action. Given the popularity of careers within intercollegiate athletics, this case study provides an excellent way for students to engage in considering the complexities of such positions.Additionally, though the case study is presented within the context of intercollegiate athletics, the analytical process required to select a course of action is transferable to other segments of the sport industry.

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Brennan K. Berg, Michael Hutchinson and Carol C. Irwin

This case study illustrates the complexity of decision making in public organizations, specifically highlighting the public health concern of drowning disparities in the United States. Using escalation of commitment theory, students must consider various factors in evaluating the overextended commitments of a local government in a complicated sociopolitical environment and with vital public needs that must be addressed through a local parks and recreation department. Facing a reduction in allocated resources, the department director, Claire Meeks, is tasked with determining which programs will receive higher priority despite the varied feedback from the management staff. To ensure students are provided a realistic scenario, this case offers a combination of fictional and real-life events from Splash Mid-South, an innovative swimming program in Memphis, Tennessee. Students must critically evaluate not only the merits of the swimming program, but the other sport, recreation, and parks programs that also merit an equitable share of the limited resources. Therefore, students are placed in a decision-making role that is common to managers of both public and private organizations. This case study is appropriate for both undergraduate and graduate sport management courses, with specific application to strategic management, organizational behavior, and recreation or leisure topics.