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Gunnar Treff, Kay Winkert, Katja Machus and Jürgen M. Steinacker

of the computer screen, which was placed in front of the RowErg. The display of the Concept2 ergometer was tilted down and not visible for the rowers during the test. Figure 1 —Schematic view of the screen during the ramp test. The solid diagonal line represents target power output; the broken lines

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Jeff Steffen and Gary Hansen

The purposes of this study were to compare psychomotor and cognitive bowling skills following traditional and computer-assisted methods with 90 students enrolled in college bowling classes. Bowling scores were significantly higher for the CAI group; however, no differences were found between the groups in cognitive test scores. The CAI groups tended to have a more favorable perception of their instructional process than did the traditional instructional group.

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Mary-Margaret Kerns

This study assessed the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in teaching tennis rules and strategies. The subjects were enrolled in two beginning tennis classes at The Pennsylvania State University. The control group (n=24) received instruction by traditional means. The experimental group (n=19) received no instruction on tennis rules and strategies during regular class periods but did interact with computer-assisted tutorials during two scheduled classes. A written test was used to measure learning and was administered during pretest, posttest, and retest. A two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures on one factor (ANOVR) was employed to determine significant differences between mean performances. The between-groups analysis and the interaction analysis were not significant, but the within-group analysis revealed an F ratio of 99.72 (p<.001). It was concluded that both groups learned tennis rules and strategies significantly from the pretest to the posttest, their learning performance on the retest differed significantly from pretest administration but not from posttest to the retest, and there was no significant difference between the performance of either group on all three testing occasions.

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Jeffrey J. Martin, Nate McCaughtry, Pamela Kulinna, Donetta Cothran and Roberta Faust

The purpose of our study was to examine the impact of mentoring-based professional development on physical education teachers’ efficacy. Experienced mentor teachers were paired (n = 15) with inexperienced protégé teachers (n = 15) at the beginning of a yearlong intervention study. It was hypothesized that teachers would increase their efficacy to use pedometers and computers to enhance instruction, and reduce their computer anxiety. Repeated-measures ANOVAs for mentors and protégés revealed a variety of significant main effects. We found increases in computer and pedometer efficacy. A second set of repeated-measures ANOVAs based on mentors’, protégés’, and control groups’ scores revealed a significant interaction for computer efficacy, indicating that both mentors and protégés significantly increased their computer efficacy compared with the control group. Finally, a significant interaction effect was also found for pedometer efficacy, again indicating that both groups significantly increased their efficacy compared with control teachers.

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B. Robert Carlson and Thomas L. McKenzie

Data gathering for research on teaching in physical education appears to be heading into a new era, an era in which electronic data collection tools will merge with older measurement techniques to make the processes of storing, analyzing, and transporting data more efficient. The rapid development of microcomputing technology has reached the stage in which portable computers are now practical as state-of-the-art tools for on-site research projects. This article addresses one of the most critical problems for doing research on teaching using time based variables. In the past, when duration recording was the observational technique, there were two ways to collect data: either through multiple stop watches or through interval recording. Both methods have their limitations—one in the manipulation of the several watches and the other in converting interval data to accurate units of time. Outlined in this article is a microcomputer program for on-site duration coding, data analysis, permanent storage, and mainframe support for research on teaching physical education. The system is complex by design but practical to use. It produces total observation time, total time by category, frequency by category, mean length of occurrence, and the percent of total time each category was observed.

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Hugh Trenchard, Andrew Renfree and Derek M. Peters

Purpose:

Drafting in cycling influences collective behavior of pelotons. Although evidence for collective behavior in competitive running events exists, it is not clear if this results from energetic savings conferred by drafting. This study modeled the effects of drafting on behavior in elite 10,000-m runners.

Methods:

Using performance data from a men’s elite 10,000-m track running event, computer simulations were constructed using Netlogo 5.1 to test the effects of 3 different drafting quantities on collective behavior: no drafting, drafting to 3 m behind with up to ~8% energy savings (a realistic running draft), and drafting up to 3 m behind with up to 38% energy savings (a realistic cycling draft). Three measures of collective behavior were analyzed in each condition: mean speed, mean group stretch (distance between first- and last-placed runner), and runner-convergence ratio (RCR), which represents the degree of drafting benefit obtained by the follower in a pair of coupled runners.

Results:

Mean speeds were 6.32 ± 0.28, 5.57 ± 0.18, and 5.51 ± 0.13 m/s in the cycling-draft, runner-draft, and no-draft conditions, respectively (all P < .001). RCR was lower in the cycling-draft condition but did not differ between the other 2. Mean stretch did not differ between conditions.

Conclusions:

Collective behaviors observed in running events cannot be fully explained through energetic savings conferred by realistic drafting benefits. They may therefore result from other, possibly psychological, processes. The benefits or otherwise of engaging in such behavior are as yet unclear.

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Evangelos Galanis, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Nikos Comoutos, Fedra Charachousi and Xavier Sanchez

-talk strategies on performance under conditions of auditory distractions in two different settings (laboratory and field). The laboratory experiment involved performance on a computer game requiring fine motor execution. The field experiment involved free-throwing in basketball. We expected that in both settings

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Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo and Maria Francesca Piacentini

Literature Search For this purpose, online computer searches on PubMed and Scopus databases were conducted to locate published research, during August 2016. The keywords used to locate relevant studies were: swimming, open-water, ultra-endurance, endurance exercise, performance, physiology, psychology