). Laursen and Collins ( 2009 ) argue that researchers may gain a more distilled picture of the parent–child relationship by measuring perceptions of the relational markers of warmth and conflict. Warmth is the tendency for the parent–child relationship to be characterized by supportive, affectionate, and
J.D. DeFreese, Travis E. Dorsch and Travis A. Flitton
Aaron J. Coutts
, there are circumstances where the public trust can be put at risk. A conflict of interest (COI) from an author, a reviewer, or an editor can influence the trustworthiness of a paper. In this editorial, I examine the potential sources of COI in sport-related research and discuss how they affect the
Keita Kamijo and Yuji Takeda
The relationship of physical activity to trial-by-trial adjustments of response conflict was assessed using behavioral task performance, the N2 event-related brain potential component, and phase-locking values (PLVs) in a lower gamma band during a perceptual conflict task. Nineteen physically active and 19 inactive young adults (mean age = 21.3 years) performed a Navon task, using a global letter made up of local letters of either the same kind (congruent trials) or a different kind (incongruent trials). Findings revealed that active individuals exhibited smaller N2 amplitudes and greater PLVs on incongruent trials that were preceded by incongruent trials compared with those preceded by congruent trials. Such phenomena were not observed for inactive individuals. These results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with larger trial-bytrial adjustments of response conflict, which we attribute to upregulation of top-down cognitive control and reductions in response conflict.
Ben Jackson, Daniel F. Gucciardi and James A. Dimmock
Recent studies of coach–athlete interaction have explored the bivariate relationships between each of the tripartite efficacy constructs (self-efficacy; other-efficacy; relation-inferred self-efficacy, or RISE) and various indicators of relationship quality. This investigation adopted an alternative approach by using cluster analyses to identify tripartite efficacy profiles within a sample of 377 individual sport athletes (M age = 20.25, SD = 2.12), and examined how individuals in each cluster group differed in their perceptions about their relationship with their coach (i.e., commitment, satisfaction, conflict). Four clusters emerged: High (n = 128), Moderate (n = 95), and Low (n = 78) profiles, in which athletes reported relatively high, moderate, or low scores across all tripartite perceptions, respectively, as well as an Unfulfilled profile (n = 76) in which athletes held relatively high self-efficacy, but perceived lower levels of other-efficacy and RISE. Multivariate analyses revealed differences between the clusters on all relationship variables that were in line with theory. These results underscore the utility of considering synergistic issues in the examination of the tripartite efficacy framework.
Andreas Volp and Udo Keil Johann
Athletes* success and failure have often been linked to certain personality characteristics. Although previous results in this area were equivocal, many researchers concluded that athletes often drop out of competitive sport because of conflicts of interest, or because they fail to demonstrate high ability in sports. This investigation assessed the importance of intrapersonal conflicts to athletic performance and to dropping out. Swimmers competing at three different levels of performance filled out a conflict questionnaire. Some had indicated that they planned to discontinue their swimming career soon. High performers showed less conflict and a more intensive use of cognitive conflict reduction mechanisms than did medium performers and low level swimmers. Dropouts, on the other hand, had higher conflict scores in areas directly related to athletic performance than did continuers. Intrapersonal conflict was interpreted to be an important mediating variable in sport and personality research.
Susan A. Capel, Becky L. Sisley and Gloria S. Desertrain
This study investigated the relationship of role conflict, role ambiguity, and six demographic variables to burnout in head high school basketball coaches. Respondents (N = 235) included coaches from six western states. Overall, burnout was found to be at a low to medium level. Regression analyses and follow-up canonical correlation analyses indicated that role conflict and role ambiguity were the only two variables consistently related to burnout. Role conflict explained the most variance on all burnout scores except depersonalization, which was best explained by role ambiguity, and personal accomplishment, which was best explained by number of years as a head coach. Ways are discussed in which role conflict, role ambiguity, and burnout may be reduced in the coaching profession. Follow-up studies need to consider other factors that may relate to burnout or that may contribute to role conflict and role ambiguity.
Kin-Kit Li and Darius K.-S. Chan
This study examined how goal conflict influences the pattern of the moderating effects of intention stability on the intention-behavior relations in the context of physical activity participation. A longitudinal study of 136 young adult students with three waves of data collection (a 2-week interval between waves) was conducted. Results showed a significant three-way interaction among intention, goal conflict, and intention stability in explaining vigorous-intensity physical activity (ß = -.25, p < .05). Consistent with our expectation, the pattern of the three-way interaction revealed that when the level of goal conflict was low, the intention-behavior relations were stronger with stable intentions and weaker with unstable intentions. However, when the level of goal conflict was high, the intention-behavior relations were weaker with stable intentions and stronger with unstable intentions. Possible underlying processes of goal conflict and intention stability on the intention-behavior relations are discussed.
Mary A. McElroy and Don R. Kirkendall
Mary A. McElroy and Joe D. Willis
Brent Hardin and Marie Hardin
This study explores the media-related attitudes and values of 10 male wheelchair athletes by soliciting their opinions and suggestions concerning disability sport print media. Using the “auto drive” technique for qualitative data collection, the analysis reveals four themes: (a) athletes are avid consumers of mainstream sport media; b) they use both mainstream and niche publications; (c) they do not want “courtesy coverage,” but instead, coverage focusing on elite elements of their sports; (d) they are unsure of media obligation in the coverage of sports involving athletes with disabilities. While the scope of this investigation is limited to male wheelchair athletes, the themes can provide a basis for further analysis and study in the emerging area of sport media research as it relates to disability.