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K. Andrew R. Richards, Chad M. Killian, Kim C. Graber and Ben D. Kern

investigation began with an online survey (quantitative), which was followed by individual interviews with selected PETE program coordinators who completed the survey. The next sections overview the design and content validity of the online survey, as well as the development of the interview guide used to frame

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Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari and Julien S. Baker

performance and power than general performance tests. To assess content validity, we recruited instructors and futsal coaches as previously mentioned. All individuals approved that this test is a valid tool to screen futsal players performance as well as abilities and skills. Test and retest results

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Claire Blennerhassett, Lars R. McNaughton, Lorcan Cronin and S. Andy Sparks

), and individuals who had no nutrition education (GenP; n  = 13). Procedures Zinn et al.’s ( 2005 ) sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire was adapted for use with ultraendurance athletes. These authors provided evidence for the content validity, construct validity, and test–retest reliability of the

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Clive J. Brewer and Robyn L. Jones

The purpose of this paper is to propose a five-stage process for establishing both validity and reliability in new systematic observation instruments. The process is contextualized within the working behaviors of elite level rugby union coaches within the practice setting. The sequential stages began with observer training and progressed through the identification of coaching behaviors through induction (to establish content validity), to establishing face validity through a domain-referenced test. The objectivity and reliability of the developed behavioral classifications are determined through an interobserver agreement test while, finally, the researcher’s ability to reliably reproduce data with the developed instrument is determined using a test/retest intraobserver reliability check. The developed instrument (the Rugby Union Coaches Observation Instrument: RUCOI) is deemed able to record the situationally unique behaviors arising from the nature of the sport and of the elite standard, both of which were considered to impinge upon the pedagogical process in the said context.

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Weiyun Chen, Kristin Hendricks and Weimo Zhu

The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Basketball Offensive Game Performance Instrument (BOGPI) that assesses an individual player’s offensive game performance competency in basketball. Twelve physical education teacher education (PETE) students playing two 10-minute, 3 vs. 3 basketball games were videotaped at end of a basketball unit in one physical education teaching methods course. Two investigators independently coded each player’s offensive game behaviors with BOGPI. The interrater reliability of the BOGPI was 99% and the alpha reliability coefficient for the total scale of the BOGPI was .95. The content validity evidence of the BOGPI was established by six experienced experts’ judgment. The results of this study indicate that the BOGPI is a theoretically sound and psychometrically supported measure that can be used by researchers and teacher educators to assess the preservice teachers’ offensive game performance ability in basketball.

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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-kwong Chung

The current study presents the development process and initial validation of a measure designed for assessing psychological needs thwarting (frustration) in a secondary school physical education context (Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale in Physical Education, PNTSPE). Secondary school students (grades 7–9) from Hong Kong (N = 1258) were invited to participate in three studies. In Study 1, item generation and initial content validity of the PNTSPE were achieved. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the measure was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales were also examined. In Study 3, the reliability and validity of the scores derived from the PNTSPE were further examined in an independent sample. Overall, the findings from the three studies provided initial psychometric evidence for the PNTSPE and suggested that the PNTSPE could be used as a valid and reliable measure to assess Hong Kong secondary school students’ psychological needs thwarting in physical education.

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Jean-Francis Gréhaigne, Paul Godbout and Daniel Bouthier

The purpose of this paper is to discuss a procedure to assess individual performance in team sports in contexts of preassessment and formative assessment. An authentic assessment procedure based on the observation of players’ actions during matches yielded two performance indices: the efficiency index and the volume of play. A general nomogram is suggested for use with various team sports in order to produce a single performance score combining both indices. Content validity, concurrent validity (.74), and ecological validity are discussed. The interobserver reliability (>.90) of the data and the stability of performance (.88) are also examined. Some conditions are discussed for integrating the assessment procedure to the teaching-learning process with an active participation of the students in the collection and interpretation of the data. The proposed procedure is strictly game oriented and yields information reflecting both motor and tactical skills.

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Kristin Wiens, Kelly Anne Erdman, Megan Stadnyk and Jill A. Parnell

Purpose:

To evaluate dietary supplement use in young Canadian athletes, their motivation for consuming supplements, and their sources of information.

Methods:

A questionnaire tested for content validity and reliability was administered to 567 athletes between the ages of 11 and 25 years from the Canadian athletic community in face-to-face meetings. Demographics and sport variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Fisher’s exact tests were used to examine dietary supplementation patterns and sources of information regarding dietary supplement use between categories of gender, age, sport type, and competition level.

Results:

Ninety-eight percent of athletes were taking at least one dietary supplement. Males were more likely to consume protein powder, energy drinks, recovery drinks, branched chain amino acids, beta-alanine, and glutamine (p < .01); supplements typically associated with increased muscle mass. Athletes 11–17 years old focused on vitamin and mineral supplements; whereas, athletes 18–25 years old focused on purported ergogenic supplements. Strength training athletes were more likely to consume creatine, glutamine, and protein powders (p < .02). Reasons for supplement use included to stay healthy, increase energy, immune system, recovery, and overall performance. Primary sources of information were family and friends, coaches, and athletic trainers; with 48% of athletes having met with a dietitian. Preferred means of education included individual consultations, presentations, and the internet.

Conclusions:

The majority of young athletes are using dietary supplements with the belief they will improve performance and health; however, may not always have reliable information. Educational programs using individual consultations and electronic media are recommended for this demographic.

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Abu B. Yilla and Claudine Sherrill

The purpose was to develop a valid and reliable battery of quad rugby skill tests. Participants were 65 adult, male, quad rugby athletes. Content validity was established in two modified Delphi rounds by a panel of international experts. For concurrent validity, Spearman rho correlations between coaches’ rankings of players’ skills and scores ranged from .63 to .98 for the total battery. For construct validity, principal factor analysis with oblique rotation revealed two factors. Intraclass reliability coefficients ranged from .94 to .99. The battery includes five tests: maneuverability with the ball, pass for accuracy, picking, sprinting, and pass for distance.

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Francis M. Kozub and David L. Porretta

The purpose of this study was to identify issues that may need to be addressed so that adolescents with disabilities are better integrated into interscholastic sports programs. The Coaches Attitude Toward Integration Questionnaire (CATIQ) was developed specifically to survey coaches’ attitudes about including adolescents with disabilities in interscholastic programs. After preliminary reliability checks were made and content validity established, the CATIQ was mailed to a random sample of 397 public school coaches. Results indicated that coaches tend to show agreement with the statement that adolescents with disabilities “have a right to sport opportunities” in interscholastic programs. However, coaches felt inadequately trained to address the needs of individuals with disabilities in integrated interscholastic sports settings.