Nixon’s (1994a; 1994b; 1996a; 1996b) research using a Risk, Pain, and Injury Questionnaire (RPIQ) is perhaps the most systematic in the risk, pain, and injury literature. The RPIQ is intended to measure the acceptance of dominant discourses on risk, pain, and injury among athletes and others. This article presents a face validity critique of the RPIQ and results of a subsequent content validity analysis based on a study of 171 athletes from a West Coast university. Structural equation modeling used to test Nixon’s original 3-factor model (M1) revealed poor model fit. Two alternate models (M2 and M3) tested reformulated subscale constructs and items. Whereas M2 demonstrated poor construct validity, limited support was found for items in M3. Further replications of this research are recommended.
Stephan R. Walk and Lenny D. Wiersma
Stephen D. Ross, Jeffrey D. James and Patrick Vargas
The Team Brand Association Scale (TBAS), which is intended to measure professional sport team brand associations, was developed through the use of a free-thought listing technique in combination with a confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Information was provided by individuals regarding their favorite sports team, and 11 dimensions underlying professional sport team brand associations were identified: nonplayer personnel, team success, team history, stadium community, team play characteristics, brand mark, commitment, organizational attributes, concessions, social interaction, and rivalry. Review of the TBAS psychometric properties indicated that eight dimensions had acceptable reliabilities (Cronbach’s alpha scores ranging from .76-.90), as well as content validity (verified by a 3-member expert panel review), discriminant validity (based on correlations among latent constructs and their standard errors), concurrent validity (significant correlations with an external measure), and construct validity.
Terry M. Libkuman, Kevin G. Love and Paul D. Donn
Using a content validity approach, including job analysis, a model was developed for the selection and appraisal of college football players. Evaluation instruments were developed for offensive lineman, quarterback, running back, receiver, defensive lineman, linebacker, and defensive secondary. Criterion related validity studies were then conducted by sending the evaluation instruments to a nation-wide sample of college football coaches who evaluated players at each position. Criterion data (e.g., passing and rushing performance statistics) were collected on the evaluated players. Multiple linear regression analyses conducted by position revealed numerous significant relationships between the predictor variables and the criterion measures. The usefulness of the evaluation instruments was enhanced by developing a simple and cost effective model that generated performance predictions for each position. Strengths and weaknesses of the present system were discussed as well as the role that sport management may play in such an endeavor.
Weimo Zhu and Ang Chen
constructed including defining the distinct constructs, conducting the content analysis to determine the primary components of each orientation, collecting content validity evidence by sending the domain definitions to curriculum specialists for review, revising the definitions based on the feedback of the
René Revis Shingles
that have been validated (e.g., baseline construct and content validity) and are relevant and specific enough to capture appropriate information. • The intake process for asking questions should be integrated into the clinical workflow. • Patients should be asked to prioritize which identified needs
Brendan Dwyer, Joshua M. Lupinek and Rebecca M. Achen
“why participants play fantasy football” were retained. Then, the research team discussed and refined the initial statements for redundancy, clarity, and content validity. The resulting motives were converted into survey items on a 7-point agreement Likert-type scale (1 = strongly disagree ; 7
Thilo Kunkel, Daniel C. Funk and Daniel Lock
) and content validity issues (success). In particular, the identification measure was excluded because identification reflects consumers’ psychological connection to a team, not a brand association. In addition, the wording of the success brand association measure examined the importance of success (i
Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi and Popi Sotiriadou
respondents need to address two Likert items, completion time is longer than with single unipolar items. The initial pool of items was first evaluated by an independent researcher with experience in elite sport policy to assess content validity. Procedures Seven postgraduate students specializing in sport and
Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell and Justin Tatman
to assess sport-media usage of our participants. The instrument adaptations were reviewed for face and content validity by a panel of sport-media ( n = 2) and SRC experts ( n = 3). Moreover, a Cronbach’s alpha calculation was completed for each uses-and-gratifications construct (see Table 1 ). The
Amy Baker, Mary A. Hums, Yoseph Mamo and Damon P.S. Andrew
-step process. First, items measuring focal constructs were selected from the prior literature. Next, a panel of sport management experts, consisting of three sport management faculty members, reviewed the items for content validity. After the selection process, a total of 48 items were retained to measure the