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Stephen D. Ross, Jeffrey D. James and Patrick Vargas

The Team Brand Association Scale (TBAS), which is intended to measure professional sport team brand associations, was developed through the use of a free-thought listing technique in combination with a confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Information was provided by individuals regarding their favorite sports team, and 11 dimensions underlying professional sport team brand associations were identified: nonplayer personnel, team success, team history, stadium community, team play characteristics, brand mark, commitment, organizational attributes, concessions, social interaction, and rivalry. Review of the TBAS psychometric properties indicated that eight dimensions had acceptable reliabilities (Cronbach’s alpha scores ranging from .76-.90), as well as content validity (verified by a 3-member expert panel review), discriminant validity (based on correlations among latent constructs and their standard errors), concurrent validity (significant correlations with an external measure), and construct validity.

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Terry M. Libkuman, Kevin G. Love and Paul D. Donn

Using a content validity approach, including job analysis, a model was developed for the selection and appraisal of college football players. Evaluation instruments were developed for offensive lineman, quarterback, running back, receiver, defensive lineman, linebacker, and defensive secondary. Criterion related validity studies were then conducted by sending the evaluation instruments to a nation-wide sample of college football coaches who evaluated players at each position. Criterion data (e.g., passing and rushing performance statistics) were collected on the evaluated players. Multiple linear regression analyses conducted by position revealed numerous significant relationships between the predictor variables and the criterion measures. The usefulness of the evaluation instruments was enhanced by developing a simple and cost effective model that generated performance predictions for each position. Strengths and weaknesses of the present system were discussed as well as the role that sport management may play in such an endeavor.

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Brendan Dwyer, Joshua M. Lupinek and Rebecca M. Achen

“why participants play fantasy football” were retained. Then, the research team discussed and refined the initial statements for redundancy, clarity, and content validity. The resulting motives were converted into survey items on a 7-point agreement Likert-type scale (1 =  strongly disagree ; 7

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Thilo Kunkel, Daniel C. Funk and Daniel Lock

) and content validity issues (success). In particular, the identification measure was excluded because identification reflects consumers’ psychological connection to a team, not a brand association. In addition, the wording of the success brand association measure examined the importance of success (i

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Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, Hiroaki Funahashi and Popi Sotiriadou

respondents need to address two Likert items, completion time is longer than with single unipolar items. The initial pool of items was first evaluated by an independent researcher with experience in elite sport policy to assess content validity. Procedures Seven postgraduate students specializing in sport and

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Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell and Justin Tatman

to assess sport-media usage of our participants. The instrument adaptations were reviewed for face and content validity by a panel of sport-media ( n  = 2) and SRC experts ( n  = 3). Moreover, a Cronbach’s alpha calculation was completed for each uses-and-gratifications construct (see Table  1 ). The

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Amy Baker, Mary A. Hums, Yoseph Mamo and Damon P.S. Andrew

-step process. First, items measuring focal constructs were selected from the prior literature. Next, a panel of sport management experts, consisting of three sport management faculty members, reviewed the items for content validity. After the selection process, a total of 48 items were retained to measure the

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Lynn L. Ridinger, Kyungun R. Kim, Stacy Warner and Jacob K. Tingle

individuals had master’s degrees, and two had doctorates and experience with scale development. Each panel member received a letter that explained the study’s purpose and requested their assistance in establishing face and content validity by providing feedback about the survey and its specific items. A

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Joseph H. Moore

game recaps, analysis, and features were the preferred stories. This followed the tenets of uses-and-gratification theory, thus establishing content validity. With the information collected during the sports and story interest survey, eight stories from were collected. These included an

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Claudio M. Rocha

.9%  Up to nine minimum wages (medium) 32.7% 33.2% 37.6% 35.3%  10 or more minimum wages (high) 16.7% 16.7% 17.0% 15.8% Scales Scales used in the study were originally constructed in English. To assess the content validity of the scales, all items and subscales were submitted to a panel of six experts