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Farid Farhani, Hamid Rajabi, Raoof Negaresh, Ajmol Ali, Sadegh Amani Shalamzari and Julien S. Baker

performance and power than general performance tests. To assess content validity, we recruited instructors and futsal coaches as previously mentioned. All individuals approved that this test is a valid tool to screen futsal players performance as well as abilities and skills. Test and retest results

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Farzad Mohammadi, Abbas Bahram, Hasan Khalaji, Dale A. Ulrich and Farhad Ghadiri

of this test for Brazilian children. Results of content validity confirmed the language clarity and pertinence, along with face validity of the TGMD-3. High intra-rater (.60 to .90) and inter-rater (.85 to .99) reliability, as well as the stability of test–retest reliability for locomotor ( r  = .93

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Claire Blennerhassett, Lars R. McNaughton, Lorcan Cronin and S. Andy Sparks

), and individuals who had no nutrition education (GenP; n  = 13). Procedures Zinn et al.’s ( 2005 ) sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire was adapted for use with ultraendurance athletes. These authors provided evidence for the content validity, construct validity, and test–retest reliability of the

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Carrie S. Baker, Jennifer M. Medina McKeon and Ellen L. Usher

Self-efficacy of balance, a psychological characteristic, may provide information regarding psychological risk factors for lower-extremity injury. Validated instruments to assess self-efficacy of balance do not currently exist. The objective of this study was to determine the face and content validity of the Self-Efficacy of Balance Scale (SEBS) for an adolescent population, as well as content validity, construct and convergent validity of the overall instrument. A series of panelists (n = 11) assessed proposed items for face and content validity for self-efficacy of balance. Construct and convergent validity were assessed with active college individuals (n = 74) and female high school basketball athletes (n = 57). Original items were revised to 21 items. Panelists validated both face and content validity of the SEBS. All items were assessed to have the construct of self-efficacy. Evidence of convergent validity supported the proposed construct of self-efficacy, and was found to be relevant to the physical functioning of a young, active population.

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Robin S. Vealey

An interactional, sport-specific model of self-confidence was developed in which sport-confidence was conceptualized into trait (SC-trait) and state (SC-state) components. A competitive orientation construct was also included in the model to account for individual differences in defining success in sport. In order to test the relationship represented in the conceptual model, an instrument to measure SC-trait (Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory or TSCI), an instrument to measure SC-state (State Sport-Confidence Inventory or SSCI), and an instrument to measure competitive orientation (Competitive Orientation Inventory or COI) were developed and validated. Validation procedures included five phases of data collection involving 666 high school, college, and adult athletes. All three instruments demonstrated adequate item discrimination, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity. In the construct validation phase, the results supported several predictions based on the conceptual model.

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P. Chelladurai and S. D. Saleh

Three different samples (total N = 485) participated in the development and refinement of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). A five-factor solution with 40 items describing the most salient dimensions of coaching behavior was selected as the most meaningful. These factors were named Training and Instruction, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior, Social Support, and Positive Feedback. Internal consistency estimates ranged from .45 to .93 and the test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .71 to .82. The relative stability of the factor structure across the different samples confirmed the factorial validity of the scale. The interpretation of the factors established the content validity of the scale. Finally, possible uses of the LSS were pointed out.

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Rachel Arnold, David Fletcher and Kevin Daniels

The series of related studies reported here describe the development and validation of the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP). In Study 1, an expert and usability panel examined the content validity and applicability of an initial item pool. The resultant 96 items were analyzed with exploratory factor analyses in Study 2, with the factorial structure comprising 5 factors (viz., Goals and Development, Logistics and Operations, Team and Culture, Coaching, Selection) and 33 items. Using confirmatory factor analyses, Studies 3 and 4 found support for the 5-factor structure. Study 4 also provided evidence for the OSI-SP’s concurrent validity and invariance across different groups. The OSI-SP is proposed as a valid and reliable measure of the organizational stressors encountered by sport performers.

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Katie L. Morton, Julian Barling, Ryan E. Rhodes, Louise C. Mâsse, Bruno D. Zumbo and Mark R. Beauchamp

We draw upon transformational leadership theory to develop an instrument to measure transformational parenting for use with adolescents. First, potential items were generated that were developmentally appropriate and evidence for content validity was provided through the use of focus groups with parents and adolescents. We subsequently provide evidence for several aspects of construct validity of measures derived from the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ). Data were collected from 857 adolescents (M age = 14.70 years), who rated the behaviors of their mothers and fathers. The results provided support for a second-order measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive relationships between mothers’ and fathers’ transformational parenting behaviors, adolescents’ self-regulatory efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating, and life satisfaction were found. The results of this research support the application of transformational leadership theory to parenting behaviors, as well as the construct validity of measures derived from the TPQ.

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Abu B. Yilla and Claudine Sherrill

The purpose was to develop a valid and reliable battery of quad rugby skill tests. Participants were 65 adult, male, quad rugby athletes. Content validity was established in two modified Delphi rounds by a panel of international experts. For concurrent validity, Spearman rho correlations between coaches’ rankings of players’ skills and scores ranged from .63 to .98 for the total battery. For construct validity, principal factor analysis with oblique rotation revealed two factors. Intraclass reliability coefficients ranged from .94 to .99. The battery includes five tests: maneuverability with the ball, pass for accuracy, picking, sprinting, and pass for distance.

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A.V. Carron, W.N. Widmeyer and L.R. Brawley

The purpose of this paper was fourfold. The first purpose was to demonstrate the need to develop an instrument to assess group cohesion while the second was to outline a conceptual model of group cohesion upon which such an instrument could be based. This model reflected four related constructs which were the a priori basis for developing a large item pool and initial versions of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ). The third purpose was to outline the four projects conducted to obtain construct-related information and to develop an initial version of the GEQ. The final purpose was to outline the two reliability and validity studies conducted with two different sport team samples. The results of these studies revealed that an 18-item version of the GEQ was internally consistent, reliable across studies, and content valid. Factor analyses with oblique rotation revealed preliminary evidence for construct validity. The GEQ is comprised of four scales reflecting the constructs of group integration-task, group integration-social, individual attractions to group-task, and individual attractions to group-social.