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Michael L. Naraine, Jessie Schenk and Milena M. Parent

This paper sought to examine the stakeholder network governance structures of two international and two domestic multisports events focusing on (a) exploring the structural connectedness of these networks and (b) illuminating powerful stakeholders vis-à-vis centrality and the ability to control the network’s flow. An exploratory, comparative case study design was built by means of 58 interviews and 550 archival materials. Findings highlight international sports events are sparsely connected networks with power concentrated in the organizing committee, government, and venue stakeholders, who broker coordination with other stakeholders. In contrast, domestic sport event organizing committees appear more decentralized as coordinating actors: Sport organizations, sponsors, and community-based stakeholders emerged as highly connected, powerful stakeholders. Domestic event governance decentralization highlights a potential imbalance in stakeholder interests through network flow control by multiple actors, while the governments’ centrality in international events demonstrates not only mode-dependent salience but also visibility/reputational risks and jurisdictional responsibilities-based salience.

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Ceyda Mumcu and Kimberly Mahoney

event professionals with the planning and coordination of their events. In addition, CVBs also encourage business travelers and visitors to visit local historic, cultural, and recreational sites ( Destinations International, 2017 ). It is common for rights holders organizations (RHOs; those that own the

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Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Liz A. Wanless, Sarah M. Aldridge and Daniel W. Jones

during Week 15 of the semester to allow adequate time for event planning and subsequent time to debrief the event. The students were entirely responsible for event operations ( Enghag & Niedderer, 2008 ; Rainer & Matthews, 2002 ), including event setup, registration, tournament coordination, management

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Emily Sparvero, Randall Griffiths and Jacob Tingle

problems that benefit all of us. You guys hear about the new coordination project between the city parks and recreation department and my school district? That was my idea.” The coaches, still not speaking, nodded in unison. “It tripled the number of practice fields available to us. It required us to open

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Vassilios Ziakas and Sylvia Trendafilova

to effectively leverage the event. Table 3 Major Event-Related Agencies and Local Supply Capability Organization Main Events Resources and Public Relations Activities Supplier Coordination Chamber of Commerce Horse Show Christmas Parade Assist with marketing & promotion of community events, advocate

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David Pierce and James Johnson

for the athletic department through coordination of advertising campaigns, corporate sponsorship, ticket sales campaigns, licensing, and promotional activities ( Gauthier, 2009 ). Salespeople demonstrate an Enterprising environment by prospecting, giving sales presentations, closing sales, upselling

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John J. Jackson

Sport has a multitude of organizations, which are social systems organized for the attainment of particular types of goals. Organizations are characterized by divisions of labor, power, and communication responsibilities through which regularities such as task allocation, supervision, and coordination are developed. Such regularities constitute the organization’s structure, which is described here in terms of formal relations and communication.

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Laurence Chalip and Anna Leyns

Four studies are reported that examine the status and potentials for local businesses to leverage the Gold Coast Honda Indy. The leveraging efforts of local businesses are identified in Study 1. Most local business managers fail to recognize the event as a leveraging opportunity. Tactics used by businesses that do attempt to leverage the event are examined in Study 2. Businesses that leverage the event obtain benefits through the use of standard promotional and theming tactics. Experts’ views about leveraging the event are obtained in Study 3. The experts conclude that some coordination of local businesses' leveraging efforts would be advantageous. The views of local business leaders are solicited in Study 4. The business leaders favor leveraging but prefer that the coordination come from an existing business organization or association, rather than through government or a new bureaucracy. The studies suggest that the potentials for leveraging are largely unrealized and that some degree of inertia would need to be overcome to realize those potentials. It is argued that event organizers have the most to gain by fostering and coordinating local business leveraging.

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Terry R. Haggerty

This paper suggests cybernetic strategies for improving organizational control and information systems. The suggestions are based on the postulates of Beer’s cybernetic Viable System Model (VSM). The VSM was based on the way the human body’s neural control system successfully manages the high degree of complexity it regularly faces. The model identifies five linked control subsystems and specifies propositions concerning their information-processing behavior. The five systems are responsible for the following key tasks: policy development, environmental matters, internal control, coordination of basic units, and the basic work of the system. The information-handling propositions focus on providing requisite capacities in (a) the communication channels linking the five control systems, (b) the transducers that carry information across system boundaries, and (c) the complexity of linked pairs of control systems. The suggested management strategies focus on designing organizations to satisfy the task differentiation, communication channel capacity, transducer capacity, and requisite complexity postulates of the model.

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Makayla Hipke and Frauke Hachtmann

This study used a case-study approach to develop an understanding of how social-media strategy is developed and deployed in Big Ten Conference athletic departments and to explore the issues associated with it. Based on in-depth interviews with department officials, the following 6 themes emerged: connecting with target audiences, varied approaches in coordination of postings, athletic communications as content gatekeepers, desire to incorporate sponsors and generate revenue, focusing on building fan loyalty through engagement, and challenges of negativity and metrics. The social-media strategy in Big Ten Conference athletic departments appears to be driven by athletic communications/sports information departments as opposed to marketing departments. The greatest benefit of social media has been the ease of engagement and instantaneous connection between fans and the teams they love, which can lead to building greater loyalty to a team. Some of the challenges departments face include having to deal with the reality of crises and negative attention around programs more quickly than with traditional media and to measure social-media success accurately.