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Weidong Li, Paul Rukavina and Paul Wright

The purpose of this study was to examine coping against weight-related teasing among adolescents perceived to be overweight or obese in urban physical education. Forty-seven students perceived to be overweight or obese from a large urban school district were interviewed. Trustworthiness of data analysis was established by using a member-checking procedure, focus group interview, and peer debriefing throughout the research process. The results indicated that adolescents perceived to be overweight or obese used self-protection, compensation, confrontation, seeking social support, avoidance/psychological disengagement, losing weight and stress reduction strategies to cope against weight-related teasing. Adolescents used multiple strategies under different mechanisms to cope, and the strategies they chose were dependent on the situation.

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Brendan Cropley, Lee Baldock, Stephen D. Mellalieu, Rich Neil, Christopher Robert David Wagstaff and Ross Wadey

This study aimed to gain an insight into the general coping strategies used by sport psychology consultants (SPCs) based in the UK, and an in-depth understanding of their development and impact. To achieve these aims a mixed-method approach was adopted by means of two linked studies. In study one, BASES accredited and/or BPS chartered SPCs (n = 29) completed the modified COPE inventory (Crocker & Graham, 1995) to gain a better understanding of the general coping strategies used by practitioners. In study two, follow-up interviews (n = 6) with participants sampled from study one were conducted to explore how the reported strategies were developed, the perceived impact of coping/not coping with stressors, and how future SPCs may be better prepared for the stressful nature of consultancy. Findings suggested that the participants had a statistically significant preference to using problem-focused coping strategies. Further, the interviews suggested that coping strategies were primarily developed through reflection on experiences in different contexts. The impacts of coping/not coping and the practical development implications raised are discussed.

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Suzanne Cosh and Phillip J. Tully

Participation in elite-sport and education is stressful and can result in sacrificed educational attainment. A dearth of research, however, has explored the specific stressors encountered by student athletes and coping strategies used, resulting in limited knowledge of how to best support student athletes. Interviews with 20 Australian university student athletes were conducted and data were analyzed via thematic analysis. Interviewees reported encountering numerous stressors, especially relating to schedule clashes, fatigue, financial pressure, and inflexibility of coaches. Athletes identified few coping strategies but reported that support from parents and coaches was paramount. Athletes would benefit from upskilling in several areas such as effective use of time, self-care, time management, enhanced self-efficacy, and specific strategies for coping with stress. Coaches have the opportunity to play a pivotal role in facilitating successful integration of sport and education.

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Adam R. Nicholls, Nicholas L. Holt, Remco C.J. Polman and Jonny Bloomfield

The overall purpose of this study was to examine stressors, coping strategies, and perceived coping effectiveness among professional rugby union players. Eight first class professional male rugby union players maintained diaries over a 28-day period. The diaries included a stressor checklist, an open-ended coping response section, and a Likert-type scale evaluation of coping effectiveness. Total reported stressors and coping strategies were tallied and analyzed longitudinally. The most frequently cited stressors were injury concerns, mental errors, and physical errors. The most frequently cited coping strategies were increased concentration, blocking, positive reappraisal, and being focused on the task. The most effective coping strategies were focusing on task and increasing effort. Professional rugby players use a variety of different coping strategies in order to manage the stressors they experience, but the effectiveness of their coping attempts can vary.

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Mi-Sook Kim and Joan L. Duda

This study examined the effectiveness of the reported coping responses utilized by 318 U.S. and 404 Korean athletes based on the Outcome model (i.e., considers perceived immediate and long-term outcomes) and the Goodness-of-Fit model (i.e., considers the fit between situational appraisal and coping strategies employed). Intercollegiate athletes provided information regarding frequency of psychological difficulties experienced during competition, their perceived controllability over such difficulties, and the reported coping strategies utilized to counter this particular stressor. Recursive path analyses revealed that both Active/Problem-Focused and Avoidance/Withdrawal coping were deemed immediately effective during competition. Active/Problem-Focused and Avoidance/Withdrawal coping strategies were, respectively, positively and negatively associated with all three long-term variables. Results partially supported the Goodness-of-Fit model among both Korean and U.S. athletes.

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Daniel Gould, Dana Bridges, Eileen Udry and Laurie Beck

This study was designed to identify coping strategies and factors thought to facilitate recovery in elite skiers who suffered season-ending injuries. Differences in the frequency that these variables were cited between unsuccessful and successful postinjury performers and between male and female participants were examined. Retrospective qualitative interviews were conducted with 21 U.S. alpine and freestyle ski team members who suffered seasonending injuries. Content analysis of the interviews revealed that 140 coping strategy raw-data themes coalesced into seven higher order dimensions: driving through; distracted self; managed emotions and thoughts; sought and used social resources; avoidance and isolation; took note and drew upon lessons learned; and other. Six higher-order facilitating factors were identified from 78 raw-data themes and included: interpersonal resources, accessible quality medical resources, fortunate circumstances, environmental resources, past experience with injury, and financial backing. The successful versus unsuccessful skier and male versus female comparisons revealed several differences between groups, especially in the use of coping strategies.

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Jeong-Keun Park

This study examined the coping strategies used by Korean national athletes. One hundred-eighty Korean athletes from 41 different sports were interviewed about the coping strategies they used as national athletes, both presently and in the past. Qualitative methodology was utilized in this investigation and the interview transcripts were analyzed inductively. The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. Themes were identified from the analysis of the interview data. Combining these themes, seven general dimensions of coping strategies were identified: psychological training, training and strategies, somatic relaxation, hobby activities, social support, prayer, and substance use. The most cited coping strategies by national athletes in Korea are similar to the coping strategies of the previous elite figure skaters in the study by Gould, Finch, & Jackson (1993).

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Andrew Evans, Robert Morris, Jamie Barker, Tom Johnson, Zoe Brenan and Ben Warner

information, and vicariously experiencing sporting success through the personal stories of others ( Barker et al., 2014 ), which are all antecedents of collective efficacy ( Bandura, 1997 ). A host of other important outcomes (e.g., coping) have yet to be assessed in PDMS research, which suggests that other

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Denise M. Hill, Nic Matthews and Ruth Senior

This study used qualitative methods to explore the stressors, appraisal mechanism, emotional response, and effective/ineffective coping strategies experienced by elite rugby union referees during pressurized performances. Participants included seven male rugby union referees from the United Kingdom (Mage = 27.85, SD = 4.56) who had been officiating as full-time professionals for between 1 and 16 years (M = 4.85, SD = 5.42). Data revealed that the referees encountered a number of stressors, which were appraised initially as a ‘threat’, and elicited negatively-toned emotions. The referees were able to maintain performance standards under pressure by adopting proactive, problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies which managed effectively the stressors and their emotions. However, the use of avoidance-coping, reactive control, and informal impression management were perceived as ineffective coping strategies, and associated with poor performance and choking. Recommendations are offered to inform the psychological skills training of rugby union referees.

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Edith Filaire, Patrick Treuvelot and Hechmi Toumi

This study explores the prevalence of disordered eating attitudes in a sample of male first-year university students engaged in a physical education program and examines the relationships between emotional intelligence, coping, and emotional eating in relation to disordered-eating (DE) attitudes. A total of 140 students completed the following questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, the Coping Inventory Stress Scale, and the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire. The number of participants represented 80% of the male students registered in this discipline at the authors’ university. Twenty percent of students presented DE attitudes even though they were of normal weight. The Bar-On EQ-I results indicated that students with DE attitudes had lower levels of emotional intelligence (EI) scores than students without DE attitudes (control group). Moreover, they scored higher than the control group on coping styles such as avoidance-oriented coping, emotion-oriented coping, and emotional eating. The DE group presented a positive correlation between DE attitudes symptoms and both avoidance- and emotion-oriented coping but a negative correlation between DE attitudes and task-oriented coping. There was also a significant negative correlation between DE attitudes and EI score. Another result from this group indicated an association between EI score and emotional-eating score (p < .05, r = –.44) and also a positive correlation between emotion-oriented coping and emotional eating (p < .01, r = .47). The findings highlight future research potential on the role of emotions and EI in DE symptoms, which may be beneficial in the context of collaborative care management intervention.