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Diane M. Wiese-Bjornstal, Kristin N. Wood, Amanda J. Wambach, Andrew C. White and Victor J. Rubio

Coping with sport injuries is one of the realities of engagement in physical activity, and a significant body of evidence on the psychological aspects of sport injuries documents the stressful and challenging nature of injury experiences ( Wiese-Bjornstal, Smith, Shaffer, & Morrey, 1998 ). Many

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Benjamin J. Levin and Jim Taylor

Surfers are a heterogeneous population with a common interest in riding waves. Surfers qualitatively describe the surfing sensation as a hybrid of meditative and athletic experience. Numerous empirical studies link both meditative experience and exercise with reduced incidence of depression and anxiety; this potentially suggests that surfers may endorse fewer symptoms of either disorder. One hundred surfers (N = 100) were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and a demographics questionnaire. Results indicate that surfers reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, and employed emotion-based coping responses to stressful situations significantly less than the general populace. Surfers also employed avoidance-based coping strategies more frequently than the general populace. Future study should evaluate causal relationships between surfing and incidence of depression and anxiety.

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Adam R. Nicholls, John L. Perry and Luis Calmeiro

Grounded in Lazarus’s (1991, 1999, 2000) cognitive-motivational-relational theory of emotions, we tested a model of achievement goals, stress appraisals, emotions, and coping. We predicted that precompetitive achievement goals would be associated with appraisals, appraisals with emotions, and emotions with coping in our model. The mediating effects of emotions among the overall sample of 827 athletes and two stratified random subsamples were also explored. The results of this study support our proposed model in the overall sample and the stratified subsamples. Further, emotion mediated the relationship between appraisal and coping. Mediation analyses revealed that there were indirect effects of pleasant and unpleasant emotions, which indicates the importance of examining multiple emotions to reveal a more accurate representation of the overall stress process. Our findings indicate that both appraisals and emotions are just as important in shaping coping.

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Alison L. Smith, Nikos Ntoumanis, Joan L. Duda and Maarten Vansteenkiste

Developing upon cross-sectional research (Smith, Ntoumanis, & Duda, 2007) supporting the self-concordance model (Sheldon & Elliot, 1999) as a framework for contextual goal striving, the current study investigated the assumptions of the model in relation to season-long goal striving in sport. The study additionally examined the role of coping strategies in the persistence of goal-directed effort. Structural equation modeling analysis with a sample of 97 British athletes indicated that start-of-season autonomous goal motives were linked to midseason effort, which subsequently predicted end-of-season goal attainment. Attainment was positively related to changes in psychological need satisfaction, which, in turn, predicted changes in emotional well-being. In a second model, autonomous and controlled motives positively predicted task- and disengagement-oriented coping strategies, respectively. In turn, these strategies were differentially associated with effort. The findings provide support for contextual adaptations of the self-concordance model and demonstrate the role of coping strategies in the goal striving process.

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Florence Lebrun, Áine MacNamara, Dave Collins and Sheelagh Rodgers

as on the coping strategies used to deal with sport- (e.g., injury, performance issues, competitive and organisational stressors) and non-sport-related (e.g., personal life events, psychosocial stressors) stressors ( Kristiansen & Roberts, 2010 ; Nicholls & Polman, 2007 ; Rice et al., 2016

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Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement

: self-kindness in times of perceived inadequacy, common humanity, and balanced awareness of emotions (i.e., mindfulness; Neff, 2003 ). Research indicates that it is positively associated with adaptive coping, positive psychological functioning, well-being, and life satisfaction ( Allen & Leary, 2010

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Pedro Teques, Luís Calmeiro, Henrique Martins, Daniel Duarte and Nicholas L. Holt

that EI ability is a component of sport parenting expertise. However, relationships between parent EI, coping, and verbal sideline behaviors have yet to be examined in the youth sport literature. Salovey and Mayer ( 1990 ) originally defined EI as a “subset of social intelligence that involves the

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Adam R. Nicholls, John L. Perry, Leigh Jones, Dave Morley and Fraser Carson

It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels.

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Ronald E. Smith

An important consideration in coping skills training is the extent to which acquired skills generalize to other life domains. For example, sport-oriented performance enhancement skills are often regarded as “life skills” that can also facilitate adaptation in other areas of life. Moreover, task-specific increases in self-efficacy produced by coping skills training could generalize to broader self-referent cognitive domains and affect global personality traits such as self-esteem and locus of control. The concept of generalization is analyzed, and factors and procedures that influence the strength and breadth of generalization effects are discussed. Several coping skills studies that address generalization effects of stress management and self-defense training are described, and the author suggests that generalization assessment should be a focal rather than incidental consideration when evaluating coping skills interventions.

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Eileen Udry

This research examined the role of coping and social support among injured athletes during rehabilitation from knee surgery. The 3 purposes included (a) describing the coping strategies used, (b) examining whether significant time changes in the use of coping and social support occurred during rehabilitation, and (c) determining if coping and social support were significant predictors of rehabilitation adherence. Athletes (N = 25) who underwent knee surgery completed assessments five times: presurgery and 3,6,9, and 12 weeks postsurgery. Descriptive statistics revealed that instrumental coping was the most used coping strategy. Additionally, a series of repeated measures analyses showed significant time changes in 2 types of coping (negative emotion and palliative), with effect sizes ranging from .16 to .32. Finally, a series of simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that instrumental coping was a significant predictor of adherence at 9 weeks postsurgery, explaining approximately 44% of the variance.