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Valeria Rosso, Laura Gastaldi, Walter Rapp, Stefan Lindinger, Yves Vanlandewijck, Sami Äyrämö and Vesa Linnamo

providing core stability: Implications for measurement and training . Sports Medicine, 38 ( 11 ), 893 – 916 . PubMed ID: 18937521 doi:10.2165/00007256-200838110-00002 10.2165/00007256-200838110-00002 Cavanagh , P. , & Komi , P. ( 1979 ). Electromechanical delay in human skeletal muscle under

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Eric J. Drinkwater, Erica J. Pritchett and David G. Behm

Context:

Resistance training while using an instability-training device is known to increase activation of stabilizing muscle groups while decreasing the force generated by the prime movers during isometric contractions.

Purpose:

To investigate differences in squat kinetics during dynamic resistance training in an increasingly unstable training environment.

Methods:

Fourteen active men participated in this study. In each testing session, each participant performed 3 repetitions of squats with a 10-repetition maximum (10-RM) resistance, 40% of their 10-RM resistance, and 20.45 kg. The 3 testing session consisted of standing on a stable foor, foam pads, or BOSU balls. All repetitions were recorded with an optical encoder to record barbell kinetics.

Results:

The transition from stable (floor) to very unstable (BOSU) resulted in high likelihoods (>75%) of clinically meaningful differences ranging from small to large (effect size [ES] 0.31–1.73) in factors relating to concentric kinetics, eccentric power, and squat depth, regardless of the resistance used for training. There were also likely differences at the heaviest resistance in peak concentric power (stable to foam: ES 2.06; foam to BOSU: ES 0.38), eccentric power (stable to foam: ES 1.88; foam to BOSU: ES 0.74), and squat depth (stable to foam: ES 0.50; foam to BOSU: ES 0.67).

Conclusions:

Resistance training in an unstable environment at an intensity sufficient to elicit strength gains of the prime movers results in deleterious effects in concentric squat kinetics and squat technique. Such observations are particularly evident on very unstable platforms.

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Warren B. Young

The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.

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Darren Steeves, Leo J. Thornley, Joshua A. Goreham, Matthew J. Jordan, Scott C. Landry and Jonathon R. Fowles

knowledge, no known protocol exists to measure trunk (CORE) maximal muscle strength in elite flatwater kayakers. Although the terms core stability and core strength are sometimes used interchangeably in the literature, it is acknowledged that core stability refers to the ability to stabilize the spine as a

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Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C. Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi and Ermanno Rampinini

General (Weeks 1–3) and the Specific (Weeks 4–7) Preparation Periods PRO SEMIPRO General preparation Specific preparation General preparation Specific preparation Monday  AM Endurance Endurance Endurance Rest  PM Core stability + technical/tactical Core stability + technical/tactical Technical

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Wojciech Jedziniak, Piotr Lesiakowski and Teresa Zwierko

. BioMedical Engineering OnLine, 13 ( 1 ), 23 . doi: 10.1186/1475-925X-13-23 Aytar , A. , Pekyavas , N.O. , Ergun , N. , & Karatas , M. ( 2012 ). Is there a relationship between core stability, balance and strength in amputee soccer players? A pilot study . Prosthetics and Orthotics International

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Timothy J.H. Lathlean, Paul B. Gastin, Stuart V. Newstead and Caroline F. Finch

typical in-season week completed by an elite junior AF player includes 2 skills sessions focusing on technical and tactical components, skills-based conditioning, strength-based sessions, recovery, range of motion, and core stability activities. They carry load across a range of training modes, including

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

a range of modalities including sprinting but also plyometric exercises, resisted running drills, proprioceptive training, plus core stability, power, and Olympic lifts. This reflects the fact that maximal running speed is limited not by the capacity to move limbs quickly but rather by the capacity

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

mixed training modalities (eg, resistance, core stability, cross-training) • Moderate and high volume • High intensity (eg, race pace) • High specificity • May include specialized training (eg, altitude and/or heat adaptation) • May include domestic and/or international competition • Low volume • High