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Huan Zhao, Xiao-Qiu Chu, Xiao-Qing Lian, Ze-Mu Wang, Wei Gao and Lian-Sheng Wang


Exercise leads to a lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, whether time of day physical exercise has effects on CAD is still unclear. The present study is to investigate the relationship between time of day physical exercise and angiography determined CAD in a Chinese population.


A total of 1,129 consecutive participants who underwent coronary angiography for the first time were enrolled in our study. Participants were divided into non-CAD group and CAD group according to the result of coronary angiography. We used a predesigned questionnaire—the work-related activity, leisure-time activity, and physical exercise information were recorded in the form of self-reporting.


Doing physical exercise was associated with a reduced risk of CAD, after adjusting the established and potential confounders, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.48 (95% CI, 0.35–0.67) compared with those who did not any physical exercise. Moreover, the risk of CAD could linearly decrease with increase of intensity, duration and frequency of exercise. Further stratification analysis revealed that the protective effects of exercise were more significant in the afternoon and evening group than in the morning and forenoon group. The adjusted ORs of doing physical exercise in morning, forenoon, afternoon, and evening groups were 0.53 (0.36–0.78), 0.51(0.27–0.96), 0.46(0.25–0.85), 0.43(0.28–0.66), respectively, compared with nonexerciser (p < .05).


Doing physical exercise can decrease the risk of CAD, and exercising in the afternoon or evening may have more significant effects on the prevention of CAD than in other time of day.

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Ming-Lang Tseng, Chien-Chang Ho, Shih-Chang Chen, Yi-Chia Huang, Cheng-Hsiu Lai and Yung-Po Liaw

Evidence suggests that physical activity has a beneficial effect of elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on reducing coronary artery risk. However, previous studies show contrasting results for this association between different types of exercise training (i.e., aerobic, resistance, or combined aerobic and resistance training). The aim of this study was to determine which type of exercise training is more effective in increasing HDL-C levels. Forty obese men, age 18–29 yr, were randomized into 4 groups: an aerobic-training group (n = 10), a resistance-training group (n = 10), a combined-exercise-training group (n = 10), and a control group (n = 10). After a 12-wk exercise program, anthropometrics, blood biochemical variables, and physical-fitness components were compared with the data obtained at the baseline. Multiple-regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between different types of exercise training and changes in HDL-C while adjusting for potential confounders. The results showed that with the control group as the comparator, the effects of combined-exercise training (β = 4.17, p < .0001), aerobic training (β = 3.65, p < .0001), and resistance training (β = 2.10, p = .0001) were positively associated with increase in HDL-C after adjusting for potential confounders. Our findings suggested that a short-term exercise program can play an important role in increasing HDL-C levels; either aerobic or resistance training alone significantly increases the HDL-C levels, but the improvements are greatest with combined aerobic and resistance training.

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Day Physical Exercise and the Reduced Risk of Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese Population Huan Zhao * Xiao-Qiu Chu * Xiao-Qing Lian * Ze-Mu Wang * Wei Gao * Lian-Sheng Wang * 4 2014 24 24 2 2 139 139 147 147 10.1123/ijsnem.2012-0226 Ultramarathon Run Markedly Reduces Plasma Sphingosine

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Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee and Song-Young Park

hypertension . Menopause . 2018 ; 25 ( 7 ): 731 – 737 . PubMed ID: 29438269 doi:10.1097/GME.0000000000001072 10.1097/GME.0000000000001072 29438269 17. Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Study . Secondary prevention by raising HDL cholesterol and reducing triglycerides in patients with coronary artery disease

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Austin T. Robinson, Adriana Mazzuco, Ahmad S. Sabbahi, Audrey Borghi-Silva and Shane A. Phillips

.7073 10.7150/ijms.7073 Levine , G.N. , Frei , B. , Koulouris , S.N. , Gerhard , M.D. , Keaney , J.F. , Jr. , & Vita , J.A. ( 1996 ). Ascorbic acid reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease . Circulation, 93 ( 6 ), 1107 – 1113 . PubMed ID

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Carolina F. Wilke, Felipe Augusto P. Fernandes, Flávio Vinícius C. Martins, Anísio M. Lacerda, Fabio Y. Nakamura, Samuel P. Wanner and Rob Duffield

underlying risk factors for coronary artery disease in essential hypertensive patients . Sci Rep . 2017 ; 7 : 43965 . PubMed ID: 28266630 doi:10.1038/srep43965 28266630 10.1038/srep43965 10. Shannon W . Cluster Analysis Epidemiology and Medical Statistics . Vol  27 . 1st ed. Amsterdam, the

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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

, Keelan PC , et al . Enhanced external counterpulsation improves endothelial function in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease . J Am Coll Cardiol . 2003 ; 41 ( 10 ): 1761 – 1768 . doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(03)00329-2 10.1016/S0735-1097(03)00329-2 12767662 11. Akhtar M , Wu G , Du Z

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

Horne , B.D. , May , H.T. , Anderson , J.L. , Kfoury , A.G. , Bailey , B.M. , McClure , B.S. , … Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study . ( 2008 ). Usefulness of routine periodic fasting to lower risk of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography . The American