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Pedro Figueiredo, George P. Nassis and João Brito

and sample mean correlations. In repeated-measures studies, it is important to quantify within-subject correlations by modeling the longitudinal data set as a whole and by reducing the variation between subjects. 5 Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the correlation between the sIgA and

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Charilaos Papadopoulos, J. Andrew Doyle and Brian D. LaBudde

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various lactate-threshold (LT) definitions and the average running velocity during a 10-km and a 21.1-km time trial (TT).

Methods:

Thirteen well-trained runners completed an incremental maximal exercise test, a 10-km TT, and a 21.1-km TT on a motorized treadmill. Blood samples were collected through a venous catheter placed in an antecubital vein. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationship between the running velocity at the different LT definitions and the average running velocity during each TT. A dependent t test was used to determine statistical differences for the mean lactate response between the 2 running distances.

Results:

The LTDmax, the point on the regression curve that yielded the maximal perpendicular distance to the straight line formed by the 2 endpoints, was the LT definition with the highest correlation for both 10-km (r = .844) and 21.1-km TTs (r = .783). The velocity at the LTDmax was not, however, the velocity closest to the performance velocity for either distance. The mean running velocity at each LT was significantly different and tended to overestimate the mean TT performance velocities. The mean lactate concentration during the 10-km TT (3.52 ± 1.58 mmol) was significantly higher than during the 21.1-km TT (1.86 ± 0.90 mmol).

Conclusion:

These results indicate that a single LT point cannot be reliably associated with different running distances. Furthermore, these data suggest that a different methodology for estimating the LT that considers individual responses might be required for different running distances.

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Kim Hébert-Losier, Kurt Jensen and Hans-Christer Holmberg

Purpose:

Jumping and hopping are used to measure lower-body muscle power, stiffness, and stretch-shortening-cycle utilization in sports, with several studies reporting correlations between such measures and sprinting and/or running abilities in athletes. Neither jumping and hopping nor correlations with sprinting and/or running have been examined in orienteering athletes.

Methods:

The authors investigated squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), and hopping performed by 8 elite and 8 amateur male foot-orienteering athletes (29 ± 7 y, 183 ± 5 cm, 73 ± 7 kg) and possible correlations to road, path, and forest running and sprinting performance, as well as running economy, velocity at anaerobic threshold, and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) from treadmill assessments.

Results:

During SJs and CMJs, elites demonstrated superior relative peak forces, times to peak force, and prestretch augmentation, albeit lower SJ heights and peak powers. Between-groups differences were unclear for CMJ heights, hopping stiffness, and most SLJ parameters. Large pairwise correlations were observed between relative peak and time to peak forces and sprinting velocities; time to peak forces and running velocities; and prestretch augmentation and forest-running velocities. Prestretch augmentation and time to peak forces were moderately correlated to VO2peak. Correlations between running economy and jumping or hopping were small or trivial.

Conclusions:

Overall, the elites exhibited superior stretch-shortening-cycle utilization and rapid generation of high relative maximal forces, especially vertically. These functional measures were more closely related to sprinting and/or running abilities, indicating benefits of lower-body training in orienteering.

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Olaf Hoos, Tobias Boeselt, Martin Steiner, Kuno Hottenrott and Ralph Beneke

Purpose:

To analyze time-domain, spectral, and fractal properties of speed regulation during half-marathon racing.

Methods:

In 21 male experienced runners, high-resolution data on speed (V), stride frequency (SF), and stride length (SL) were assessed during half-marathon competition (21,098 m). Performance times, timeand frequency-domain variability, spectral-scaling exponent (beta), and fractal dimension (FD) of V, SF, and SL were analyzed.

Results:

V of 3.65 ± 0.41 m/s, SF of 1.41 ± 0.05 Hz, and SL of 2.58 ± 0.25 m occurred with higher (P < .05) individual variability in V and SL than in SF. Beta and FD were always 1.04–1.88 and 1.56–1.99, respectively. Beta and FD differed (P < .05) in SF and SL compared with V and were correlated in V and SL (r = .91, P < .05). Spectral peaks of V, SF, and SL occurred at wavelengths of 3–35 min, and those of V and SL were interrelated (r = .56, P < .05). Mean SF and mean SL were significantly correlated with performance (r = .59 and r = .95, P < .05). SL accounted for 84% ± 6% and SF for 16% ± 6% of speed variability.

Conclusions:

The observed nonrandom fluctuations in V, SF, and SL correspond to nonstationary fractional Brownian motion with inherent long-range correlations. This indicates a similar complex regulation process in experienced runners that is primarily mediated via SL.

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Mohamed Ali Nabli, Nidhal Ben Abdelkrim, Imed Jabri, Tahar Batikh, Carlo Castagna and Karim Chamari

Purpose:

To examine the relation between game performance, physiological responses, and field-test results in Tunisian basketball referees.

Methods:

Computerized time–motion analysis, heart rate (HR), and blood lactate concentration [La] were measured in 15 referees during 8 competitive games (under-19-y-old Tunisian league). Referees also performed a repeated-sprint test (RSA), Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (YYIRTL1), agility T-test, and 30-m sprint with 10-m lap time. Computerized video analysis determined the time spent in 5 locomotor activities (standing, walking, jogging, running, and sprint), then grouped in high-, moderate-, and low-intensity activities (HIAs, MIAs, and LIAs, respectively).

Results:

YYIRTL1 performance correlated with (1) total distance covered during the 4th quarter (r = .52, P = .04) and (2) distance covered in LIA during all game periods (P < .05). Both distance covered and time spent in MIA during the 1st quarter were negatively correlated with the YYIRTL1 performance (r = –.53, P = .035; r = –.67, P = .004, respectively). A negative correlation was found between distance covered at HIA during the 2nd half (3rd quarter + 4th quarter) and fatigue index of the RSA test (r = –.54, P = .029). Mean HR (expressed as %HRpeak) during all game periods was correlated with YYIRTL1 performance (.61 ≤ r < .67, P < .01).

Conclusions:

This study showed that (1) the YYIRTL1 performance is a moderate predictor of game physical performance in U-19 basketball referees and (2) referees’ RSA correlates with the amount of HIA performed during the 2nd half, which represents the ability to keep up with play.

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Sangwoo Lee, Ronald Davis, Lawrence W. Judge, Young-Hoo Kwon, Kihoon Han, Jemin Kim, Jaewoong Kim and Jaehwa Kim

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among release factors (speed, height, and angle) and distance thrown in Paralympic seated shot put. Fortyeight trials performed by 11 men and 5 women during the 2012 US Paralympic trials in track and field were analyzed. With both genders combined, release speed (r = .95, p < .01) and angle (r = .51, p < .01) showed significant correlations to distance thrown. Release speed (r = .94, p < .01) in men and all release factors (r = .60–.98, p < .02) in women showed significant correlations to distance. Release speed and angle were identified as important predictors of the distance, explaining over 89–96% of the variance in distance thrown. Unlike athletes without disability, seated shotputters exhibited significant positive speed–angle correlations (combined: r = .37, p < .01; women: r = .57, p = .03). Application of these results should address a focus in training on generating speed through the release point with a consistent release angle.

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Nicolas Babault, Wacef Bazine, Gaëlle Deley, Christos Paizis and Grégory Lattier

Purpose:

To examine the acute effect of a single static-stretching session of hamstring muscles on torque production in relation with individual flexibility.

Methods:

Maximal voluntary concentric torque of hamstring muscles was measured before and after a static-stretching session (6 × 30 s). Torque changes were correlated with the flexibility level determined at the onset of the experimental procedure.

Results:

The hamstring-stretching intervention significantly reduced maximal concentric torque in participants with low and high hamstring flexibility. Hamstring flexibility and torque decrease, determined immediately after the stretching procedure, were negatively correlated.

Conclusions:

Torque decrease measured after the static-stretching session is dependent on participant flexibility. Participants with low flexibility are much more likely to demonstrate large torque decreases poststretching.

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Joseph O.C. Coyne, Sophia Nimphius, Robert U. Newton and G. Gregory Haff

, the numerator ATL is contained in the denominator CTL) causes a spurious correlation. 3 A spurious correlation occurs when 2 variables are incorrectly inferred to be related to one another or the relationship is incorrectly understated or overstated. 4 A potential cause of this type of error is mathematical

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Aaron T. Scanlan, Neal Wen, Joshua H. Guy, Nathan Elsworthy, Michele Lastella, David B. Pyne, Daniele Conte and Vincent J. Dalbo

measures derived from the IMTP with sprinting and jumping tests commonly used in adolescent basketball. There is a paucity of research examining the IMTP in adolescent basketball players. 5 To date, only correlations between dominant:nondominant ratios in normalized peak force production using unilateral