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Colin D. McLaren and Kevin S. Spink

accounted for in task cohesion above and beyond the social properties of communication. As this was the first study to consider the social and cognitive properties together, no specific hypotheses were forwarded as to the unique weighting (i.e., semipartial correlations) of each property of communication

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Leeann M. Lower-Hoppe, Kyle B. Heuett, Tarkington J. Newman and Shea M. Brgoch

second 10-min segment of video was coded. After the second coder training, intercoder reliability was calculated using an intraclass correlation and indicated an agreement rate of .94. Interactions were further categorized by the time of practice they occurred including prepractice, practice, during

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Daniel Maderer, Petros Parganas and Christos Anagnostopoulos

significant correlation between the number of posts and the number of fans on both Facebook and Twitter was found. Analysis of Posts The first part of the research consisted of analyses and statistical tests regarding the clubs’ posts. Analysis of Type of Brand Attribute With regard to brand attributes, clubs

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Mark R. Lyberger and Donna L. Pastore

This study examined the self-perceived compliance of health club facility operators with the American with Disabilities Act (ADA). A 112-item survey was developed to assess; awareness of ADA regulations, knowledge of the ADA and disability function, perceptions toward ADA regulations, and self-perceived compliance with ADA regulations. The questionnaire was administered to a random sample (N = 190) of facility operators in Ohio. Because only 45 (23.7%) responded, surveys were sent to the remainder of the facility operators (n = 180), yielding another 5 usable questionnaires. To verify the questionnaire's subscale structure, item-to-total correlations and internal consistency estimates (a) were utilized, and descriptive statistics and correlations were carried out. The findings suggest that low levels of awareness are associated with low to moderate levels of self-perceived compliance, that facility operators are only moderately knowledgeable and generally perceptive of the ADA, and that they are not fully complying with ADA regulations.

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Stephen D. Ross, Jeffrey D. James and Patrick Vargas

The Team Brand Association Scale (TBAS), which is intended to measure professional sport team brand associations, was developed through the use of a free-thought listing technique in combination with a confirmatory factor analysis procedure. Information was provided by individuals regarding their favorite sports team, and 11 dimensions underlying professional sport team brand associations were identified: nonplayer personnel, team success, team history, stadium community, team play characteristics, brand mark, commitment, organizational attributes, concessions, social interaction, and rivalry. Review of the TBAS psychometric properties indicated that eight dimensions had acceptable reliabilities (Cronbach’s alpha scores ranging from .76-.90), as well as content validity (verified by a 3-member expert panel review), discriminant validity (based on correlations among latent constructs and their standard errors), concurrent validity (significant correlations with an external measure), and construct validity.

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Tom Mueller and Marilyn S. Roberts

This article examines the state of sponsorship marketing and its correlation with branding-measurement models deemed most salient by corporations. Academic literature including sponsorship-value analysis, stockholder response to sport and brand activities, measurements of brand value, and the application of brand theory are explored. The readings suggest that a sports entity must deliver a positive and complementary brand association to attract corporate partners. Sport entities that remain competitive in the marketplace will build individual, strong brands that add to, and do not deplete or detract from, the equity built in the corporate sponsor’s brand.

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Jun Oga

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which the Japanese sport industry was affected by business fluctuations in the domestic economy during the 1986-1993 business cycle. In addition, the relations between changes in the general economy (gross domestic product, combined sector in the economic activities, family income, living expenditures, and working hours) and the value of the sport industry were investigated. The annual figures for these variables were derived from several government and nongovernment publications, and the percentage changes in these variables were used in multiple regression analysis. Analysis indicated that the trend in value of the sport industry was affected by the fluctuations and demonstrated positive correlation with the changes in the combined sector in the general economy. However, the trend in value of the sport industry was not correlated with trends in family income or living expenditures during the period under observation. Subsequent analysis of the sportswear sector in the sport industry demonstrated negative correlation with working hours.

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Andrea N. Geurin-Eagleman

Masters sport participation is continually increasing, and although much research has uncovered masters participation motives, it has been noted that an understanding of community among masters athletes was also necessary. Online communities of sport participants have been examined only minimally, with research uncovering correlations between new-media use and sport-participation frequency. Using uses and gratifications theory, this study sought to examine masters gymnastics participants to develop a better understanding of athletes’ use of online communities in relation to their sport participation and examine differences in online community use based on demographics. Online survey results from 164 international participants revealed they used new media primarily for fanship, information, and technical knowledge, and online masters gymnastics communities were most often extensions of in-person training groups and communities. These findings and their implications are discussed in the article.

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Joseph Ray, Jimmy Smith and Brian Fowler

Social media has become a powerful source of sports information. The uncertainty of outcomes of a sporting event is a contributing factor to fan satisfaction, which in turn affects fans’ social-media habits. If teams can determine specific factors that affect these social-media habits, marketing conclusions can be drawn. The current research followed the Twitter accounts of 4 National Hockey League (NHL) teams throughout the 2015 NHL postseason to observe changes in fan engagement. The results displayed increasing growth during each subsequent round of the Stanley Cup playoffs, which indicates an advantageous time to gain fans and develop brand loyalty. The current research showed that retweets and favorites earned on team tweets were shown to have the greatest correlation to followers gained. The growth demonstrated during the postseason provides sports organizations the opportunity to cultivate a strong and loyal following for their teams through strategic marketing initiatives.

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Rasmus K. Storm and Ulrik Wagner

Sports scandals are often discussed in the media and research literature without any deeper reflection on their specificities or development. As the economic and political significance of sport seem to grow in correlation with the development of globalization and new social media, the call for a sociological understanding of the downsides of sport becomes imperative. By deploying a communication-theory framework supplemented with insights from discourse theory, this article aims to develop a theoretical model of the sports scandal. It presents a 5-step model encompassing initial steps of transgression, followed by a publicly observed dislocation destabilizing the social order, which subsequently results in moral communication, environmental pressure for appropriate action, and, finally, an institutional solution.