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Robert English, Mary Brannock, Wan Ting Chik, Laura S. Eastwood and Tim Uhl

Context:

Lower extremity functional testing assesses strength, power, and neuro-muscular control. There are only moderate correlations between distance hopped and isokinetic strength measures.

Objective:

Determine if incorporating body weight in the single-leg hop for distance increases the correlation to isokinetic measures.

Study Design:

Correlational study.

Setting:

Musculoskeletal laboratory.

Participants:

30 healthy college students; 15 men and 15 women; ages 18 to 30 years.

Main Outcome Measures:

Isokinetic average peak torque and total work of quadriceps and hamstrings and single-leg hop work and distance.

Results:

Significant correlations include hop work to total-work knee extension (r = .89), average peak-torque knee extension (r = .88), distance hopped to total-work knee extension (r = .56) and average peak-torque knee extension (r = .63). Correlations involving hop work were greater than distance hopped (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Use of body weight in the assessment of distance hopped provides better information about the patient’s lower extremity strength and ability than the distance hopped alone.

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John H. Hollman, Kimberly E. Kolbeck, Jamie L. Hitchcock, Jonathan W. Koverman and David A. Krause

Context:

Hip-muscle weakness might be associated with impaired biomechanics and postures that contribute to lower extremity injuries.

Objective:

To examine relationships between hip-muscle strength, Q angle, and foot pronation.

Design:

Correlational study.

Setting:

Academic laboratory.

Participants:

33 healthy adults.

Main Outcome Measures:

Maximal isometric hip abduction (Abd), adduction (Add), external-rotation (ER) and internal-rotation (IR) strength; Q angle of the knee; and longitudinal arch angle of the foot. We analyzed Pearson product– moment (r) correlation coefficients between the Abd/Add and ER/IR force ratios, Q angle, and longitudinal arch angle.

Results:

The hip Abd/Add force ratio was correlated with longitudinal arch angle (r = .35, P = .025).

Conclusions:

Reduced strength of the hip abductors relative to adductors is associated with increased pronation at the foot. Clinicians should be aware of this relationship when examining patients with lower extremity impairments.

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Rodrigo de Marche Baldon, Daniel Ferreira Moreira Lobato, Lívia Pinheiro Carvalho, Paloma Yan Lam Wun, Cátia Valéria Presotti and Fábio Viadanna Serrão

Context:

Recently, attention in sports has been given to eccentric hip-muscle function, both in preventing musculoskeletal injuries and improving performance.

Objective:

To determine the key isokinetic variables of eccentric hip torque that predict the functional performance of women in the single-leg triple long jump (TLJ) and the timed 6-m single-leg hop (TH).

Design:

Within-subject correlational study.

Setting:

Musculoskeletal laboratory.

Participants:

32 healthy women age 18–25 y.

Intervention:

The participants performed 2 sets of 5 eccentric hip-abductor/adductor and lateral/medial-rotator isokinetic contractions (30°/s) and 3 attempts in the TLJ and TH.

Main Outcome Measurements:

The independent variables were the eccentric hip-abductor and –adductor and medial- and lateral-rotator isokinetic peak torque, normalized according to body mass (Nm/kg). The dependent variables were the longest distance achieved in the TLJ normalized according to body height and the shortest time spent during the execution of the TH.

Results:

The forward-stepwise-regression analysis showed that the combination of the eccentric hip lateral-rotator and -abductor isokinetic peak torque provided the most efficient estimate of both functional tests, explaining 65% of the TLJ variance (P < .00l) and 55% of the TH variance (P < .001).

Conclusions:

Higher values for eccentric hip lateral-rotator and hip-abductor torques reflected better performance. Thus, the eccentric action of these muscles should be considered in the development of physical training programs that aim to increase functional performance.

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Shogo Uota, Anh-Dung Nguyen, Naoko Aminaka and Yohei Shimokochi

Context:

Excessive knee valgus and tibial external rotation relative to the femur during weight bearing motions, such as jump-landing, reportedly increases the risk of developing chronic knee pain, such as patellofemoral pain. Excessive deviations from normal ranges of several static lower extremity alignment measures and dynamic hip motions may also increase the risks for patellofemoral pain.

Objective:

To determine the relationship between lower extremity alignments and hip motions to frontal and transverse plane knee motions during double-leg landings.

Design:

Correlational study.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants:

69 healthy, competitive athletes (27 men, 42 women; height, 166.5 ± 9.5 cm; weight, 61.3 ± 9.9 kg; age, 20.7 ± 1.0 y) participated in this study.

Interventions:

Prone and supine hip version, quadriceps angle, and tibiofemoral angle were measured. Frontal and transverse knee and hip angles at peak knee extensor moment during landing were calculated.

Main Outcome Measures:

2 separate stepwise multiple regression analyses were conducted to predict frontal and transverse plane knee motions using 4 static lower extremity alignment measures and hip motions.

Results:

Greater hip adduction and prone hip anteversion, and lesser hip internal rotation and supine hip anteversion, were related to greater knee valgus motions (R 2 = .475, P < .01). Greater hip adduction was related to greater knee external rotation (R 2 = .205, P < .01).

Conclusions:

Some targeted static lower extremity alignments and hip motions are associated with frontal and transverse knee motions. However, stronger relationships of hip motions with knee motions than static lower extremity alignments provided evidence that improving hip movements may help improve patellofemoral pain in those with lower extremity malalignments.

Open access

Robert W. Cox, Rodrigo E. Martinez, Russell T. Baker and Lindsay Warren

repeated measures correlation study was designed to determine if the Clinometer Smartphone Application™ would produce equivalent measurements to the Baseline Evaluation Instruments™ 12-1000 plastic goniometer. The University of Idaho Institutional Review Board granted approval for the study. Written

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Katya Trousset, David Phillips and Andrew Karduna

), 479 – 486 . PubMed doi:10.1080/00222895.2013.832136 10.1080/00222895.2013.832136 Li , L. , Ji , Z.-Q. , Li , Y.-X. , & Liu , W.-T. ( 2016 ). Correlation study of knee joint proprioception test results using common test methods . Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28 , 478 – 482 . PubMed

Open access

Melissa Theige and Shannon David

athletes in a controlled setting, longitudinal studies, correlation studies between labral tear location/severity and success of nonsurgical treatment, and studies among various sports and levels of sport, to identify populations in which nonsurgical treatment may be more or less effective. References 1

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Jereme Wilroy and Elizabeth Hibberd

.1016/j.amepre.2004.02.002 15165658 36. Tawashy AE , Eng JJ , Lin KH , Tang PF , Hung C . Physical activity is related to lower levels of pain, fatigue and depression in individuals with spinal-cord injury: a correlational study . Spinal Cord . 2009 ; 47 ( 4 ): 301 – 306 . PubMed ID

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Muammer Altun

reliability of knee joint position sense assessment measures . Knee . 2013 ; 20 ( 3 ): 162 – 169 . PubMed ID: 22819143 doi: 10.1016/j.knee.2012.06.010 22819143 8. Li L , Ji Z-Q , Li Y-X , Liu W-T . Correlation study of knee joint proprioception test results using common test methods . J Phys